Cardiac and Renal Protective Effects of L-Carnitine in Hypercholesterolemic Rats
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This work was carried out in order to investigate the role of Lcamitine in protection against acute myocardial infarction as well as acute renal failure induced experimentally in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rats 5% cholesterol enriched diet for 30 days. The study included two main parts. In the first part, isoprenaline HC1 was used (300 mg/kg I.P.) to induce acute myocardial infarction in rats. The results of this part revealed that, hypercholesterolemia significantly increased all the parameters which evaluate the cardiac necrosis (T wave voltage, CPK level and infarct size %) . Daily administration of L-carnitine (200 mg/kg orally) for 30 days induced significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, TG. LDL as well as significant decrease in all the indices of cardiac necrosis when compared to their corresponding values in the rats fed 5% cholesterol enriched diet but not treated with L-carnitine . In the second part of the study, acute renal failure was induced in rats by I.M. injection of hypertonic glycerol (50%) in a dose of 10 ml/kg. The results of this part showed that hypercholesterolemia significantly aggravated the acute renal failure induced by glycerol. Daily administration of L-carnitine for 30 days normalized the lipid perofile (total cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL) and significantly decreased serum urea, creatinine, Na+ and K+ compared to their corresponding values in L-carnitine non treated glycerol injected rats. All the results of this work were also confirmed by the histopathological exmination of the hearts and kidneys of the tested rats . So, it may be concluded that : 1- Hypercholesterolemia aggrevates the acute myocardial infarction as well as the acute renal failure induced experimentally in rats. 2- Daily administration of L-camitine for 30 days normalizes the lipid profile of the rats fed cholesterol enriched diet . 3- L-carnitine administration provides an evident cardiac and renal protective effects. 4- The cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of L-carnitine may be attributable to its lipid lowering and antioxidant effects and/or its role in improving fatty acids metabolism and energy production at the mitochondrial level.