Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Post-menopausal Women
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk increases after menopause which may be related to metabolic and hormonal changes. Menopause is a risk factor of CVD because estrogen withdrawal affects cardiovascular function and metabolism. Objective: To recognize the risk of menopause as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Subject and Methods: 500 women living in Azazzi village, Sharkia Governorate and aged between 45-55 years were invited to attend the health unit for participation in this cross-sectional study, during the period from February-to-August, 2008. Only 270 women shared in the study after exclusion of the unfit and refusing women. All women were subjected to a well designed questionnaire, measuring blood pressure, weight and height for BMI calculation, serum samples for FSH and E2 hormones and blood samples for lipids, lipoproteins and glucose. The collected data were analyzed by using the mean, standard deviation and multivariate analysis (SPSS statistics program). Results: The study showed a significant relation between the menopause and systolic blood pressure (p<0.001), total cholesterol (p<0.001), LDLcholesterol (p<0.05) and triglycerides (p<0.001). Also, there was a significant relation with age (p<0,001), current smoking (p<0.05) and BMI (P<0.05). Conclusion: Menopause is a predisposing factor of cardiovascular disease because it is accompanied with increased lipids, lipoproteins, systolic blood pressure and withdrawal of estrogen hormone which causes changes in function and metabolism of cardiovascular system. Recommendations: The menopausal women should be educated to control hypertension and diabetes. The reproductive hormone therapy should be under medical supervision. They should be advised to stop smoking, do regular exercise and maintain normal body weight.