PRIMARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS AND HYDROCARBON EXPOSURE: A CASE - CONTROL STUDY
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This is a case-control study which examines the hypothesis of whether cumulative exposure to hydrocarbons have a contributory role , or not, in the development of Idiopathic glomerulonephritis (IGN). The study groups include Ord composed of adult ION cases, GLII composed of patients with kidney disease of known aetiology (internal controls), and Cr. III composed of subjects with normal kidney function. The catchment areas of the 3 groups are the same. Cumulative exposure was estimated using a Lifetime hydrocarbon exposure score (LIIES). Odds ratio of having IGN and being exposed to hydrocarbons was calculated as 3.02 compared to the internal control group (P43.05), and 8.44 compared to the external control group (P<0.0001). The 3 groups differed in the mean values of LHES. After examining for confounders, only family history of renal disease, cigarette smoking, and holding of blue-collar jobs were found to be different across the study groups. As for type of biopsy of IGN cases, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was the most prevalent type in solvent exposed IGN cases, followed by focal segmental glomerulonephritis. However, all known pathologies of IGN were represented. Finally, 2 measures of cumulative hydrocarbon exposure were compared with the conclusion that Hydrocarbon exposure code (EEC) which is simpler can be used for easier estimation of exposure, bearing in mind its sensitivity and specificity as a screening tool.