Study of the Prenatal Effect of Diabetes Mellitus 011 the Cranial Neural Crest" Mesenchymal "Derivatives in Rats and the Modulating Role Of Vitamin E Supplementation
|Full paper||Not Available|
ABSTRACT One hundred and twenty adult albino rats of both sexes (100 females and 20 males) were used in the present study. The female rats were classified into 3 groups, a control group (20 female pregnant rats), a diabetic group (50 female pregnant rats) which were made diabetic with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/lcgm body weight), and a diabetic group treated with vitamin E (30 female pregnant rats). The latter group was made diabetic and was given vitamin E by a gastric tube once daily in a dose of 400 mg /day from the first day of pregnancy until the 20th day. The pregnant rats in all three groups were anaesthetized by ether and then dissected at the gestational days 10, 16 and 20. Fetuses were examined morphologically and histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain and alizarin red was used for skeletal tissues. Samples of neuroepithelial cells from embryos of the 10th day were prepared for electron microscopic examination. Morphological examination of the fetuses of diabetic mothers showed that several external anomalies such as, low set external ears, micrognathia, exencephaly, severe deformities in the neck region and abnormalities in limbs and digits were frequently observed. It also showed growth retardation. Skeletal study showed incomplete ossification of the mandible and all skull bones with absent hyoid bone and failure of ossification of the sternum, lower part of vertebral column, and metacarpal & metatarsal bones in fetuses of diabetic rats. Histological study revealed abnormalities in the MECKEL'S cartilage, mandibular bone, tongue, thymus, thyroid, heart with absence of teeth and parathyroid glands. Ultra-structural studies showed changes in the embryonic mitochondria of neuroepitheliwn. These changes included mitochondrial swelling, disturbed cristae, pale matrix and the mitochondrial membrane showed concave folds with loss of continuity. Vitamin E supplementation improved the fetal growth, decreased the severity of malformations and corrected the morphological changes in the embryonic mitochondria. So, we can advise the pregnant diabetic mothers to control well their blood sugar level and receive supplementation of vitamin E.