Protective effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats: a histological and imnnunohisochemical study
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Aflatoxin contamination of foods is a worldwide problem. Chronic aflatoxin exposure is associated with kidney damage. Curcumin is a herbal agent, used in medicine with a wide range of beneficial therapeutic effects. Objective: to evaluate the effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Forty adult male rats were included and they were divided equally into 4 groups (10 rats each): Group I (control group), group II (Curcumin group): The rats received curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally by gastric tube for 5 days/week, group III (Aflatoxin 81 group): The rats received aflatoxin 81(250 pg/kg b.w./day) orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks, group IV (Aflatoxin Bland Curcumin group): The rats received aflatoxin and curcumin orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Kidney specimens were prepared and sections were stained with hematcArylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Periodic acid Schiff, immunohistochemical detection of desmin and Bc12. Results: The tubules of group III showed degenerative and necrotic changes with disruption of basal lamina. There was a significant decrease Bc12 expression in the tubules, but the glomeruli showed an enlargement with dilation of their capillaries lumina in some areas, while the other areas showed glomerular atrophy with obliteration of their capillaries lumina. There was a significant increase in desmin expression in the glomerular cells. The interstitium showed hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Group IV showed improvement of the histological and immunohistochemical changes described before. Conclusion: Aflatoxin 81 has deleterious effects of on the histological structure of the rat's renal cortex and curcumin minimized these effects as it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. We advise eating nutritious diets that contain sufficient amounts of curcumin and regulation must implement to avoid the presence of aflatoxins in high concentrations in human food.