Introduction: Bleomycin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat curable diseases such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The major limitation of bleomycin therapy is the pulmonary toxicity. Pirfenidone is a modified phenyl pyridine that has an antioxidant, anti-transforming growth factor and anti-platelet derived growth factor effects.
Aim of the study: to evaluate the histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical changes in the pulmonary alveoli of adult male albino rats after intake of bleomycin and the possible role of pirfenidone in minimizing these changes.
Material and Methods: Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were divided equally into 4 equal groups; the first group (control), the second group that received bleomycin for 10 days , the third group that received pirfenidone for 10 days and the fourth group that received pirfenidone & bleomycin for 10 days. The lungs were dissected out, processed and lung sections were stained with Hx&E, Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemicaly. Then they were examined by light microscope for histological and immuno-histochemical study to evaluate the structure of pulmonary alveoli. Biochemical measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were also performed.
Results: Bleomycin treatment in the second group induced alveolar inflam¬mation, interstitial pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary alveolar fibrosis, while pirfenidone significantly reduced these induced lung injuries in the fourth group rats that treated with pirfenidone and bleomycin. These protective effects were associated with a significant (P