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### Assist. hanan fathallah abdelaziz elbana

#### Academic Position: Demonstrator

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#### Faculty: Agriculture

#### Department: Agricultural Economics

#### Edu-Mail: hanan.elbana@fagr.bu.edu.eg

#### Mobile: 01091202830 - 01012525676

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##### An Analytical Study Of Productivity For The Fish Farms In Beheira Governorate [2018-11-12]

Summary And Recommendation There is no doubt that all the countries of the world are interested in providing food in various ways. In view of the increasing population growth, the world has become increasingly concerned with fish wealth as part of the protein food, and even in developing it. The economic importance of fish is that it is a renewable natural resource. This can generate a profitable economic return. Although Egypt enjoys many fisheries and the presence of many El- Beheira, fish farms, government, civil and fish farming in rice fields and floating cages, this water wealth is not exploited Yields enough in the field of fisheries at the national level in general and in particular the province of the El-Beheira, so the research problem is how the great benefit of those resources and to raise the productive efficiency of fish farms in El-Beheira. The study aims at estimating the most important factors affecting the productivity of the fish farms in El-Beheira governorate to identify the efficiency of the resources in these farms in order to increase production efficiency. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the study included three main sections. The first chapter dealt with two chapters. The first chapter discus with the theoretical framework, the second chapter discuse with the review of previous studies related to the subject of the study. The second part of the study dealt with the current status of fish production in Egypt and the El-Beheira Governorate. Through the study of the temporal development of production and consumption, the average per capita consumption of fish and the food gap in Egypt during the period from 2000 to 2015, (P), which reached 131.2 at a significant level of 0.01 at 71.2 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 6.24% from the average annual. As for the development available for consumption, least square method equation indicated that there was a general trend that was statistically significant at 0.01 levels. The annual increase rate was about 76,800 thousand tons, which represents about 5.65% of the average annual consumption of fish. As for the development of the average consumption of fish per capita, it was found that there was a significant increase in morale, which was statistically significant at 0.01. The annual rate of increase was about 0.630, equivalent to about 3.86% of average per capita consumption. In the study of the development of the self-sufficiency ratio of fish, least square method equation indicated that there was a general trend which was statistically significant at 0.01. The annual increase rate was about 0.541 thousand tons, which represents about 0.65% Annual fish. As for the temporal development of fish production from natural fisheries in Egypt, least square method equation for the temporal development of sea fish production showed that there was a significant decreasing trend which was statistically significant at 0.05% according to the value of (P) of about 6.67. The annual decrease was 1.3 tons, equivalent to 1.08% of the average production, as for the development of fish production from El-Beheira; least square method equation showed that there was a decreasing trend that did not prove statistically significant according to the value of (P) of about 0.19. The annual decrease was 32 tons, which is equivalent to 0.18% of the average production, as for the development of fish production from the Nile River and a variety; least square method equation indicated that there was a significant decreasing trend that was statistically significant at 0.01 levels according to the value of (P) of about 18.12. The annual decrease amounted to 2.86 thousand tons, equivalent to 3.2% of the average production, As for the temporal development of fish production from natural fisheries, least square method equation showed that there was a decreasing general trend which was statistically significant at 0.01 level according to the value of (P) of 18.22 at about 4, 48 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 1, 18% of the annual average. As for the development of fish production from fish farming in Egypt, least square method equation for the development of fish production from government farms showed that there was an increasing trend that did not prove statistically significant according to the value of (P) of about 0.27. The annual rate of increase was 0.42 thousand tons, which is equivalent to 3.5% of the average production, As for the development of the production of fish from the local farms, least square method equation showed that there was a significant increase in morale which was statistically significant at 0.01 level according to the value of (P) of about 323.19. The annual rate of increase was 43.09 thousand tons, which is equivalent to 7.4% of the average production, on the production of fish from semi-intensive culture least square method equation showed that there was an increasing tendency that did not prove statistically significant according to the value of (P) of about 0.09. The annual rate of increase was 0.016 thousand tons, equivalent to 1.1% of the average production. As for the development of fish production from intensive culture, least square method equation indicated that there was a significant increase in significance at a significant level of 0.01 according to the value of (P) of about 28.02. The annual increase rate was 0.172 thousand tons, which is equivalent to 26.4% of the average production, As for the development of fish production from cages culture, least square method equation indicated that there was a significant increase in significance at a significant level of 0.01 according to the value of (P) of about 9.5. The annual rate of increase was 13, 01 thousand tons, equivalent to 13.16% of the average production, as for the temporal development of fish production from paddy fields, least square method equation indicated that there was a significant increase in morale which was statistically significant at 0.01 levels according to the value of (P) of about 7.2. The annual rate of increase was 1.28 thousand tons, which is equivalent to 5.6% of the average production, And the development of fish production from fish culture, least square method equation showed that there was a decreasing general trend which was statistically significant at 0.01 level according to the value of (P) of 312, 24 at 58, 01 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 8, 16% of the annual average. As for the development of foreign trade, least square method equation for the quantity of imports showed that there was a significant trend which was statistically significant at 0.05 level according to the value of (P) of 4.51 at 11.18 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 4.6 % Of the annual average, As for the evolution of the import value ratio, least square method equation showed that there was a significant increase in significance at a significant level of 0.01 according to the value of (P) of 42,75 at 291656.7 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 14.72% Annual average. As for the development of the percentage of exports, least square method equation indicated that there was a significant increase in the mean value at a significant level of 0.01 according to the value of (P) of 58.16 with about 1.51 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 17.04% Annual average. As for the development of the percentage of export value, least square method equation showed that there was a significant increase in the mean value at 0.01 level according to the value of (P) of 75.08 at 15523.44 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 20.03%. As for the temporal development of fish production from the natural fisheries in the El- Beheira, least square method equation for the development of fish production from the sea showed that there is a decreasing trend that did not prove statistically significant according to the value of (P) of about 3.8. The annual decrease was 0.30 thousand tons, equivalent to 2.5% of the average production. As for the development of fish production from El-Beheira, least square method equation showed that there was a significant decreasing trend that was statistically significant at 0.01 level according to the value of (P) of about 51.9. The annual decrease was 0.35 thousand tons, equivalent to 4.5% of the average production. As for the development of fish production from the Nile River and its branch, least square method equation showed that there was a significant decreasing trend which was statistically significant at 0.01 levels according to the value of (P) of about 31.3. The annual decrease was 0.16 thousand tons, equivalent to 11.4% of the average production. As for the development of fish production from natural fisheries, least square method equation indicated that there was a significant decreasing trend, which was statistically significant at 0.01 level according to the value of (P) of 14.95 at about 0.82 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 3, 96% of the annual average. As for the development of fish production from fish culture in the El- Beheira governorate, least square method equation for the development of fish production from government farms showed that there was a decreasing trend that did not prove statistically significant. The annual decrease rate was about 0.016 thousand tons, which is equivalent to 0.001%. As for the development of the production of fish from the local farms, least square method equation showed that there was a decreasing general trend that did not prove statistically significant. The annual decrease rate was about 1.30 thousand tons, which is equivalent to 0.003% of the average production. As for the production of fish from intensive and semi-intensified culture, least square method equation showed that there was a general trend which was statistically significant at 0.01 levels. The average annual increase was about 0.109 thousand tons, which is equivalent to 0.08% of the annual average. As for the development of fish production from cages culture, there is an increasing general trend which was statistically significant at the level of 0.01, about 5.49 thousand tons per year, with an annual change rate of about 0.017% from the average annual. As for the temporal development of fish production from paddy fields, least square method equation indicated that there was a decreasing general trend which was statistically significant at 0.05 levels at 0.157 thousand tons with an annual change rate of about 0.004% from the average annual. As for the temporal development of the total production of fish in the Republic and the Governorate, least square method equation for the development of the total production of fish in the Republic showed that there was an increasing general trend which was statistically significant according to the value of (P) of 131.2 at the level of 0.01, Thousand tons at an annual rate of change of about 6.24% of the annual average. As for the temporal development of the total production of fish in the governorate, least square method equation showed that there is an increasing trend of the total production in the governorate, which was statistically significant at 0.01 levels with 5.90 thousand tons with an annual change rate of 5.98% from the annual average. The most important factors influencing the quantity consumed were the number of population, the quantity of imports and the retail price of poultry. The production elasticity was estimated at 3.18, 0.181 and -0.179 for each of them respectively Means that an estimated 10% change in each of them has a significant change of 31.8%, 1.81%, and 1.79%, respectively. The third part of the study consists of four chapters. The first chapter discuse with the choice of the sample of the field study, The second chapter discuse with the estimation of the production functions, the third chapter, the estimation of the cost functions and the fourth chapter. Chapter 1 Selection of the sample of the field study The study community was identified as the governorate of the El-Beheira because of its importance in fish farming, where it occupies the fifth place in terms of area of fish farms by 4.23% of the total area of farms in the Republic and in terms of farm productivity, 5, 36% of the total republic. Central Edco and Kafr El-Dawar were selected as the largest centers in terms of the number of fish farms according to their relative importance of about 39%, 38.8 respectively, The area of Al-Jarf, Al-Khairi canal and Khom Hassan were selected from the Edco Center as the largest areas in terms of the number of fish farms. The area of Al-Sunna, Al-Haybi and Al-Kneis was selected from Kafr El Dawar Center. The sample size of 244 farms was randomly selected from both centers. Areas identified (123 Edco Farm, 121 Kafr El Dawar). The sample size was divided into two categories of production (less than 10 feddans, more 10 feddans), and each category contained two types of production, the normal and half intensive. The second chapter discuses with the statistical estimation of the production functions in the sample of the field study. The results of the equations in the double logarithmic pattern of the regular category of less than 10 feddans at the Edco center showed that the most important factors affecting the quantity produced are the area of the farm and the feed quantity, 0.21 respectively, which means that a 10% change in each of them has a change in the same direction of 7.7%, 2.1%, For the normal pattern, the largest category of 10 feddans at the Edco Center. The results of least square method equation in its double logarithmic form of the function showed that the most important factors affecting the quantity of fish produced were the area of the farm and the product experience. The production elasticity was estimated at 0.84, -0.15 respectively, which means that a change of 10% in each of them will result in a significant change of 8.4% in the same direction and -1.5% in the opposite direction, For the ordinary pattern, less than 10 feddans at the Kafr El Dawar Center, the results of least square method equation in its double logarithmic form of the productive function showed that the most important factors affecting the quantity of fish produced are the amount of organic manure and the farm area where production elasticity was estimated at 0.096, Which means that a change of 10% in each of them will result in a change in the same direction of 0.96%, 9.5%, For the normal pattern, a larger category of 10 feddans showed the results of least square method equation in its double logarithmic form of the productive function. The most important factors affecting the quantity of fish produced are the area of the farm, the duration of the production cycle, the quantity of organic fertilizer, the quantity of the chemical fertilizer and the amount of feed, 0.84, -0.73, 0.031, 0.023, 0.37 respectively, which means that a change in the value of 10% in each of them will result in a change of 8.4%, 0.31%, 0.23%, 3.7% In the same direction and a change of magnitude -7.3% in the opposite direction. The double of logarithmic function of the semi-intensive class of less than 10 feddans at the Edco Center indicated that the most important factors influencing the quantity of fish produced were the number of fry and the amount of fodder. The production elasticity was estimated at 0.52 and 0.56 respectively, each of which has a significant change of 5.2%, 3.6% in the same direction, The double logarithmic function of the half-condensed form of the 10-acre group at the Edco Center showed that the most important factors affecting the quantity of fish produced were the area of the farm, the amount of fodder and the amount of organic fertilizer. Production elasticity was estimated at 0.75, 0.23 and 0.016 respectively Means that a change of 10% in each of them has a significant change of 7.5%, 2.3%, 0.16% in the same direction, The double logarithmic function of the semi-intensive form of less than 10 feddans showed that the most important factors influencing the quantity of fish produced were the area of the farm, the number of fry and the quantity of the chemical fertilizers. The production elasticity was estimated at 0.95, 0.021 and 0.01 respectively Means that an estimated 10% change in each of them has a significant change of 9.5%, 0.21%, 0.1% in the same direction, The most important factors influencing the quantity of fish produced were the area of the farm and the amount of organic manure, where the production elasticity was estimated at 1.1, 0.037, respectively, which means that the change is estimated 10 % In each of them have a significant change of 10.1%, 0.37% in the same direction. Chapter3 discuses with the statistical estimation of the cost functions and the estimation of the parameters of the productive costs of the productive farms, The sample of the study shows that the optimum size is less than 10 feddans at the center of Edco 17 tons and the maximum size is 32.13 tons, While the maximum size of the profit was 54.9 tons. The average size of the regular category was less than 10 feddans at Kafr El Dawar Center with 17.46 tons, while the maximum size of the profit was 42.7 tons. 10 feddans at the center of Kafr El Dawar about 44.7 tons while the maximum volume of profit was 58.14 tons. As for the semi-intensive type, the optimum size was estimated at less than 10 feddans at the Edco Center at 28.86 tons, while the maximum size of the profit was 50.48 tons. The optimum size of the largest category of 10 feddan at the Edco Center was estimated at 113 tons, for a profit of 426.5 tons. The optimum size was estimated to be less than 10 in Kafr El Dawar. The optimum size was 34.43 tons, while the maximum volume was 57.63 tons. The optimum size of the largest category of 10 acres at Kafr El Dawar Center was estimated at 93.41 tons, while the maximum volume of profit was 292, 50 tons. The fourth chapter discuses with the productivity and economic efficiency of fish farming for the sample of the field study for the 2017 season for the cities of Edco and Kafr El-Dawar in El-El- Beheira Governorate according to the patterns and productive categories of both centers. 86 thousand pounds, 1108.7 thousand pounds, average Fdani 86.52 thousand pounds and the net profit is 109,16 thousand pounds with an average net return of Fdani 18,14 thousand pounds, 400,6 thousand pounds with an average net return Fadani 31,2 thousand pounds , For the lower and more than 10 acres respectively. As for the yield of the investor, it was found that the calculation of the yield of the fish invested in the fish farms in the research groups studied showed that it was about 0.27 and 0.57 respectively in favor of those farms. As for the semi-intensive system at the lowest and more than 10 feddans at the center of Idco, it was found that the average value of production, 866,665 thousand pounds with an average Fadani 133,3 thousand pounds, 2939,991 thousand pounds with an average of 134,59 thousand pounds and a net yield of 366, 27 thousand pounds with an average net return of Fdani 56,4 thousand pounds, 1279.79 pounds with an average net return Fdani 58.61 thousand pounds, respectively. In the study of the yield of the finite investor, it was found that in calculating and estimating the yield of the fishery invested in the fish farms in the research groups studied, it was found to be about 0.73, 0.77 respectively in favor of those farms. A study of production efficiency measures at Kafr El Dawar Center shows that the average value of production is 337.65 thousand pounds with an average of 79.4 thousand pounds, 1251.6 thousand pounds with an average of 88,8 thousand pounds and a net yield of 51.73 thousand pounds, Net revenue of Fdani 12,2 thousand pounds, 405,9 thousand pounds with an average return of Fdani 28,64 thousand pounds, for the ordinary pattern of the lowest and more than 10 acres, respectively. As for the yield of the investor, it was found that the calculation of the yield of the fishery invested in the fish farms in the research groups studied showed that it was about 0.18, 0.47, respectively, in favor of these farms. As for the semi-intensive and low-grade system and more than 10 acres in the center of Kafr El-Dawar, it was found that the average value of production 877,566 thousand pounds with an average Fdani 132,94 thousand pounds, 2814,21 thousand pounds, average Fdani 135,74 thousand pounds, , 48 thousand pounds with an average net return of Fadani 49.54 thousand pounds, 1080,23 thousand pounds with an average net return of Fdani 51,91 thousand pounds, respectively. As for the yield of the investor, it was found that the calculation of the yield of the fish invested in the fish farms in the research groups studied showed that it was about 0.59 and 0.62 respectively in favor of those farms. Chapter five discuss the most important indicators of marketing efficiency for the most important fish species in the province of El- Beheira indicate that the distribution of the consumer's fairy that the average share of the product of the consumer fairy of tilapia in the field research sample in the El- Beheira in 2017 was about 83.77% while the average share of the wholesaler The retailer about 2.19%, 14.04% respectively of the consumer fairy, While the average share of intermediaries of the consumer fairy for tilapia fish is about 16.23%. It was also found that the average share of the product of the consumer pie of the boury fish in the field research sample in the governorate of El-Beheira during the year 2017 was about 89.10% while the average share of the wholesaler and retailer was about 1.78%, 9.12% respectively Of the consumer's fairy, while the average share of the consumers of the consumer fairy for the fish Albori about 10.90%. It was also found that the average share of the product of the fairy consumer of the fish Altobara in the field research sample in the province of the El- Beheira in 2017 was about 88.56% The average share of both the wholesaler and the retailer was about 1.61%, 9.82% respectively of the consumer fairy, while the average share of the intermediaries of the consumer fairy for the fish of the brick is about 11.44%. The estimated marketing efficiency of tilapia, boron and lobster fish was estimated to be about 78.42%, 86.04, 85.08%, indicating the high marketing efficiency of these varieties. Recommendations In the study of the most important problems faced by fish producers in the province of the El-Beheira, the study recommends the following: 1- Expanding in the establishment of cooperative societies for the owners of fish farms representing them and defending them and providing them with all the inputs of production at low prices and coordinating with the General Authority for Fisheries Development to solve their problems. 2- The interest in providing credit facilities to fish farms owners through the provision of loans with a simple interest and soft guarantees, especially that these projects proved the feasibility of the effectiveness of investment. 3- Activating the role of the Agricultural Extension Service and supplying it with sufficient numbers of specialists and training specialized guides in the various aquaculture fields to solve their problems and implementing training courses and building guidance programs for fish farms owners to upgrade the adoption of technical innovations for fish farming. more### Research Interests

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