Mental retardation is significantly subaverage intellectual functioning (an IQ of approximately 70 or below) and impairment in adaptive functioning. This work aimed at assessing the daily living activities of mentally disabled children attending specialized institutions in response to caregivers practice. This study was descriptive design conducted at El. Tarhea El Fekrea in Benha and Rehabilitation center for mentally retarded children it El-Zytone. The period of March 2003 up to October 2003, the sample composed of 67 caregivers and 70 mentally retarded children. The first tool of data collection was interviewing questionnaire that designed to collect socio-demographic data about caregivers, caregivers knowledge about mental retardation disorder, needs of mentally retarded child, problems facing caregivers and behaviors of caregivers with mentally retarded child and caregivers practices to train mentally retarded child on daily living activities, the second tool of data collection was observation check list that designed to collect socio-demographic data about mentally retarded children, and self-care assessment sheet according to nursing system that described if children able to do daily skills dependent, or partial dependent or independently. The results of the present study revealed that the majority of caregivers who are included in the study had adequate knowledge about mental retardation disorders the results also revealed that fear, stress and frustration and inadequate of human resources who specialized at filed of mental retardation were the main psychological and supplemental problems.
Through this study. The researcher found that the caregivers of government institutions don’t practice the daily living activities as required which make the mentally retarded child is more dependent on himself, however we find that the caregivers of the private institutions more performance of the daily living activities. This reflects positively on the children. The study recommended that day activity program for mentally retarded children: this day designed to serve those who desire to participate in a program that offers a variety of individualized activities that include training in activities of daily living and personal care assistance recreation, education social skills development.
Caregiver provides plan as group work for activities of daily living , social skill development and Education are incorporated into weekly schedules for who require growth in these areas.