Aim: This study was designed to investigate the current epidemiological situation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and
rift valley fever virus (RVFV) infection of camels originating from Sudan “smuggler” and Egypt as part of our future plan for
a national surveillance program in Egyptian provinces, which will aid in establishment of control strategy for animal diseases.
Materials and Methods:This investigation was accomplished using serological diagnostic and molecular biology
techniques. A total number of 200 blood samples were collected from camel (120 originated from Sudan “smuggler” and 80
from local breed) and were subjected for testing both BVDV and RVFV occurrence with different age and sex.
Results:Sixty-six of the 200 camels (33%) were positive for BVDV antibodies, and 44 (22%) for BVDV antigen (Ag),
and 27 of the 200 camels (13.5%) were positive for RVFV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. On the other hand, the
seroprevalence of BVDV for antibodies (47.5%), Ag (31.6%), and RVFV IgG antibodies (16.6%) was higher in camel
originated from Sudan “smuggler” than of local breed which was 11.2% for BVDV antibodies and 7.5% for BVDV Ag,
while it was 8.7% for RVFV IgG antibodies. The incidence of BVDV antibodies, Ag, and RVFV IgG antibodies was the
highest in male, up to 9 years of age. The frequency of positive cases was significantly different according to the origin of
samples and sex and age of camel for BVDV and RVFV. In addition, seven serologically positive samples for BVDV and
five serologically positive samples for RVFV were submitted as a buffy coat for molecular detection by one-step – reverse
transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results demonstrated that three samples were positive for BVDV of
camel originated from Sudan (smuggler), while no RVFV Ag was detected in all five samples. Sequencing and phylogenetic
analysis of the amplicons obtained from positive RT-PCR samples (three samples) indicated 100% nucleotide homology
with Sudan strain 2015 except only one (missense point mutation) by substitution of A to T at position 345 that changed the
coded amino acids from T (Threonine) to S (Serine) at residue 115.
Conclusion: Camels act as risk animals for the introduction of many infectious diseases from Sudan to Egypt, especially
transboundary animal diseases, so strict quarantine measures should be taken during importation of live animals from Sudan
to prevent the spread of such diseases.