Two field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Farm of Horticulture Department Faculty of Agricultuer. Moshtohor, Benha Univeristy Egypt in the two successive seasons of 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 to evaluate the effect of physical mutagen (Gamma rays and Microwave) and chemical mutagen (Colchicine) on Gladiolus grandifloras cv. 'White Prosperity '. The corms of Gladiolus were treated by the different materials, as (Gamma rays at. 20 Gray, 40 Gray, and 80 Gray), different concentrations soaking of colchicine (0.0%, 0.1% and 0.2% for 20 hours) and different time of Microwave (10, 20 and 30 seconds) on growth performance, Flowering, corm production and mutations production of Gladiolus grandiflorus c v. White Prosperity. Results showed that the different levels of Colchicine had a slight effect on sprouting date, but Gamma rays and Microwave treatments induced a significant earliness in both seasons. All treatments significant increase of the studied growth parameters, plant height, number of leaves/plant, length of the 4 leaf (cm), leaf area at the 4 leaf (cm2), fresh and dry weight of leaves (g)/plant over control, but the best treatments were obtained by Microwave at 10 second treatments and Gamma rays at 20 Gray. The greatest treatments were recorded in the two seasons by soaking the corms in 0.2% colchicine solution for 20 hours in both seasons. However, first Flowering opening was affected by all tested treatments except Colchicine at 0.1% and 0.2%, Microwave at 30 second. Also, Flower spike fresh weight, Florets number per spike, Flowering zone length, Flower spike length in both seasons.
Conclusively, the study recommended to soak the corms in 0.1%,0.2% Colchicine solution for 20 hours, exposed to corms Gamma rays and Microwave before planting to get better growth performance, all Vegetative growth parameters, all flowering characters and higher corm production. But, exposure of gladiolus plant to higher doses of gamma rays at 80 Gray and Microwave at 30 second were significantly decreased all parameters under the study.
Additionally, maximized lagging chromosomes stickiness and polypolar cells of chromosomal abnormalities Subjecting of gladiolus for microwave for 10 seconds and gamma rays at 40 and 80 Gray, succeeded in inducing low chromosomal abnormalities, stickiness aneuploidy, polyploidy, and micronucleate per cells. immersion of gladiolus plant in 0.02% diploid chromosomes, hexaploidy, lagging chromosomes, stickiness aneuploidy, polyploidy and micronucleate per cells.