Publications of Faculty of Medicine:Structural and ultra-structural testicular effects of chronic heavy exposure to methyl-xanthine derivatives: An experimental animal study: Abstract

Structural and ultra-structural testicular effects of chronic heavy exposure to methyl-xanthine derivatives: An experimental animal study
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Abstract Objectives: To elucidates the structural and ultrastructural testicular effects of chronic heavy consumption of methylxanthine beverages on normally growing adult rats. Materials & Methods: The present study comprised 40 male albino rats with weight range of 250-300 grams divided into 4 equal groups: Group I (Control group) received no beverages and Groups II, III and IV which received the calculated dose of caffeine, cocoa and theophylline, respectively. The dose was arbitrarily calculated by calculation of the mean amount consumed by 100 individuals of varying age groups and was found to be about 5 mg/kg body weight/day as a mean dose for the three powders and to determine the effect of heavy consumption the dose was given multiplied by 3 so each animal received 15 mg/kg/day. All animal were .sacrificed at 6 months after start of experiment, the testes were dissected immediately and testicular tissues were obtained for light and Electron microscopic examinations. Results: Chronic heavy administration of studied beverages induced histological testicular changes on comparison to control specimens; however histological changes varied from irregularity and thickness of the tubular limiting membrane (LM) and widening of intracellular spaces (IC) with caffeine to loss of regular pattern of cellular arrangement in semineferous tubules (SNT) with loss of the spermatogenic line and dispersed cells in the tubules with cocoa. Theophylline induces more changes manifested as showing SNT with cell debris and many vacuoles of different sizes and shapes, few Sertoli cells were seen nearby the irregularly thickened and corrugated tubular LM and thickened dilated blood vessels (BV) and darkly stained Leydig cells were evident. Electromicroscopic examination confirmed these data showing immature spermatids, vacuoles, dense bodies and dilated acrosomoic cap) and mitochondria are arranged close to the cell membrane with caffeine. Cocoa received group showed vacuoles inside and between cells, and ruptured mitochondria, lipid droplets and dense bodies were observed in Sertoli cells with thickened LM and separation of its component. Moreover, thick wall BY with increased collagen fibrils were observed between SNT and the nuclei of Leydig cells were indented. With theophylline, sections showed irregularity of the plasma membrane, the tubular LM is highly corrugated and thickened with increased density of collagen fibrils, moreover, certain parts of SNT showed some cells nearly devoid of their components apart from some organelles and Leydig cells seen between SNT showing darkness and indentation of the nuclens. Conclusion: Chronic heavy consumption of Methylxanthine beverages induced significant structural changes in adult rat testes with varied extent being minimal with caffeine and more intensified with theophylline.