Little is known about the potential adverse effects of a chronic zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis infection on hepatic inflammation and its relationship to paraoxonase (PON)-1 and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of T. spiralis infection on hepatic synthesis of PON1.
Wistar rats were infected with 2500 first-stage larvae (L1) of T. spiralis, and serum PON1 and BuChE activities were evaluated. Hepatic expression levels of PON1, BuChE and various cytokines and chemokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] were evaluated for up to 9 weeks post-infection (p.i.). The effect of these changes on the degree of hepatic apoptosis was also investigated.
Trichinella spiralis infection in rats induced significant decreases in serum PON1 activities from day 2 until week 7 p.i. and BuChE activity starting from day 4 until 2 weeks p.i. Moreover, T. spiralis infection increased serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and TGF-β1 during the enteral phase of the parasite life cycle. The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 showed significant increases during the enteral phase for the former and the muscle phase for the latter. These were associated with hepatic inflammation and apoptosis. These events typically decreased hepatic PON1 and BuChE mRNA expression.
Immune responses mounted against T. spiralis infection in rats were associated with hepatic inflammation and a subsequent decrease in serum PON1 and BuChE activities.