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Dr. Abdallah Fawzy Abdallah Al-Janainy :: Publications:

Title:
Impact of the Announcement of Eisenhower's Doctrine on the Arab East: A Documentary Study
Authors: Abdallah Fawzy Abdallah Al-Janainy
Year: 2016
Keywords: Not Available
Journal: the Center of Contemporary History of Egypt Journal, Egyptian National Library and Archives, Vol. 16, January 2017
Volume: the Center of Contemporary History of Egypt Journal, Egyptian National Library and Archives, Vol. 16, January 2017
Issue: the Center of Contemporary History of Egypt Journal, Egyptian National Library and Archives, Vol. 16, January 2017
Pages: Not Available
Publisher: Not Available
Local/International: International
Paper Link: Not Available
Full paper Not Available
Supplementary materials Not Available
Abstract:

World War II leads to many implications at all levels. At the international level, the United States emerges as a superpower rival to the Soviet Union, in light of the demise of the British and French empires. The race between the two camps starts and rivalry takes many forms; it is reflected upon the Arab region, which is not isolated from all these developments. Eisenhower's principle forms a new episode of the Cold War between the Western and Eastern blocs, as the United States and the Soviet Union seek to contain the largest number of countries in the world within their scope, and make them a sphere of their influence, in an attempt to encircle each other, through a connected series of actions, including economic aids and military alliances. Although Eisenhower's Principle is not the first, it is distinguished from preceding projects in terms of the imperative implementation; the matter which makes Egypt has a double standard towards it. On the one hand, Egypt deliberately refuses it since announcing a desire to not having a legitimate presence in the region, hoping to follow the rest of the Arab countries likewise in this trend, as happened in the past. On the other hand, Egypt rejects its application to the Middle East in order to avoid achieving the goals it is designed for; including isolating it from the rest of the Arab countries, and connecting the region to the Western policy, particularly the US, and then eliminating the current national liberation. Events encourage on the international and regional levels President Eisenhower to design this principle, at the top of which are the impressive results of the Suez crisis 1956, which leaves many implications. At the regional level, Egypt gets unexpected political gains, despite what the burden it shoulders, and the stature of President Nasser rises, and then he becomes a leader, and appears like a pan-Arab hero. At the international level, the results confirmed the demise of the British and French empires in the Arab region once and for all, and in return of that the Soviet Union holds an important place in the Arab region due to its positive attitudes towards the events of the region. As for the United States, its political leadership decides to put a new strategy matching with those developments, especially that the idea of linking the region with it by military alliances is a failure, so as to face the Communist and Nasserist pan-Arab growing wave in the region, as it represents a threat to its interests and influence. This study monitors the reference of this principle in light of US policy in the region since the end of World War II, then the declaration of principle and its implications, and shows its impact to the framework of the position of the Arab countries towards it. This study focuses on the impact of the declaration of Eisenhower's Principle on the Arab region in 1957, especially the independent political entities concerned with this principle in the first place; namely Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen, based on the secret archives of the Egyptian Foreign Ministry.

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