Nano spirulina dietary supplementation augments growth, antioxidative and immunological reactions, digestion, and protection of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, against Aeromonas veronii and some physical stressorsFish Physiology and Biochemistry
|Authors:||Hiam Elabd, Han-Ping Wang, Adel Shaheen & Aya Matter|
|Journal:||Fish Physiology and Biochemistry|
|Full paper||Not Available|
|Supplementary materials||Not Available|
The current study evaluated the effects of nano delivery of Spirulina platensis on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and biochemical, immunological, and antioxidative status, as well as resistance to Aeromonas veronii and some physical stressor challenges in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Three experimental fish groups (n = 270) with mean weights of 26 ± 0.30 g and mean lengths of 10 ± 0.5 cm were used; the first additive-free basal diet served as the control group, whereas the following two groups were supplemented with spirulina nanoparticles (SPNP) at 0 (control), 0.25, and 0.5%/kg diet for 4 weeks. Following the feeding trial, fish were challenged with hypoxia, cold stresses, and pathogenic bacteria (A. veronii) infection (9 × 108 CFU/ml). SPNP supplementation, especially 0.5%, (p < 0.05) significantly increased growth performance (specific growth rate % day−1, feed conversion ratio, and length gain rate %), immunological (plasma lysozyme and liver nitrous oxide) antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in liver), biochemical (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, glucose, and cortisol concentrations in plasma) assays, and digestive enzymes (lipase and amylase in plasma). The expression of liver’s heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and interleukin 1, beta (IL-1β) genes showed a significant upregulation outline of 0.5% SPNP > 0.25% SPNP > 0% SPNP compared with the control. Protection in the incorporated fish groups exposed to A. veronii was 100% compared with the control group, which showed 50% cumulative mortalities. In conclusion, dietary SPNP supplementation improved growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune response, digestive enzymes, related gene expression, and resistance of Nile Tilapia to hypoxia, cold, and A. veronii infection. Thus, SPNP could be used as a natural therapy for controlling those stressors.