Morphological markers analysis indicated that the range of Euclidean distance among all genotypes (1.04-9.97) is relatively wide. Also, the average Euclidean distances (5.50) among all genotypes was high. All genotypes formed three different groups and the studied morphological traits contributed significantly in differentiating the three groups from each other.
Genetic relationship using simple sequence repeat (Microsatellites or (SSRs) experiment was conducted using fifty SSR’s were used to find out the genetic relationships between genotypes. The results showed that the similarity matrix of genetic distance ranged from 0.10 between Gemmiza 7 and Line 8 to 0.875 between Sakha 69 and Sakha 61. The average of similarity among varieties was 0.49. Among of fifty SSR loci, ten microsatellite markers (20%) generated polymorphism between parents with a total of 92 fragments. Of the total scorable SSR bands, 27 alleles were detected for polymorphism. This represented an average of 2.7 alleles per locus with a range of two to five alleles detected by a single SSR locus. Nei’s genetic distance (GD) was measured using the 27 polymorphic SSR alleles and showed that the genetic distance for each genotype combination ranged from 0.27 to 0.72 and the studied varieties formed two main clusters. The first main cluster separated to two sub-clusters, the first sub-cluster included Gemmiza 7 and Sids 6 at a genetic similarity about 0.66 and the second sub-cluster included Line 1 and Line 6 at a genetic similarity about 0.49. In relation to second main cluster, this cluster formed two sub-clusters at a genetic similarity about 0.55, the first sub-cluster included Sakha 69 and Sakha 61 at a genetic similarity about 0.68 and Sakha 8 which represented an individual variety at a genetic similarity about 0.58. For the second sub-cluster, the results indicated that it included two varieties, Line 2 and Line 8, which separated at genetic similarity about 0.72.
The results indicated that the amount of heterosis and specific combining ability were highly significantly correlated with Nei’s genetic distance (GD) for grain yield per plant (0.60 and 0.49, respectively). The results showed that heterosis only was significant correlated with Nei’s GD for number of spikes per plant (0.31), while SCA was significant correlated with Nei’s GD for 1000-kernel weight (0.40). On the other hand, all other traits were weakly correlated between Nei’s GD and heterosis and SCA. With regard to correlation of heterosis with SCA, heterosis was also significant or highly significant correlated with SCA for all traits under study.