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Prof. Ibrahim Galal Ibrahim Shaaban :: Publications:

Pressure-Flow Scour under a Bridge Deck in Clear Water Conditions
Authors: Abdelhaleem, F.S.; Mohamed, I.M.; Shaaban, I.G.; Ardakanian, A.; Fahmy, W.; Ibrahim, A.
Year: 2023
Keywords: bridge abutments; clear water scour; free flow; local scour; pressure flow; pressure scour
Journal: Water
Volume: 15
Issue: 404
Pages: 20
Publisher: MDPI
Local/International: International
Paper Link:
Full paper Ibrahim Galal Ibrahim Shaaban_water-15-00404-v2.pdf
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The issues of scouring around a bridge have become prominent in recent research mainly due to recurrent extreme weather events. Thus, designing a bridge with the appropriate protection measures is essential to safeguard it against failure, which may take place due to scouring from high flows resulting from extreme weather events. Bridges may become partially or entirely submerged during extreme weather events such as large floods and are subject to pressure-flow scour, a condition where the flow is directed downward and under the bridge deck, creating an increase in flow velocity and a corresponding increase in bed scour. This study aims to explore the pressure-flow scour depth under a bridge deck without piers in the presence of two vertical wall abutments under clear water experiments. Sixty-six tests were conducted involving the approach flow depth, bed material size, contraction length, contraction width, and bridge opening for both pressure and free surface flow conditions. An empirical equation was deduced to determine the maximum scour depth, which could be applied as a preliminary design for bridges under pressure-flow conditions. The experimental data were used to determine the performance of the earlier models of pressure-flow scour. The results revealed that for pressure-flow conditions, the maximum scour depth increased by a factor between 2.15 and 9.81 times the maximum scour depth under free surface flow conditions. With same flow depth, when the relative bridge length was increased from 5 to 7.5 and 7.5 to 10, the maximum scour depth decreased by up to about 7.4% and 2.3%, respectively. When the relative bridge width was decreased from 5.5 to 5.2 and 5.2 to 4.4, the maximum scour depth increased by up to about 45.6% and 81.2%, respectively.

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