||The current study aimed to validate the role of ultrasound in the evaluation of reproductive performance, ovarian activity and pregnancy status in small ruminants.
In chapter I: To declare the contributing factors (species, season, body weight and age) impact small ruminants fertility, the reproductive statuses of sheep (n=232) and she-goats (n=164) admitted to Meet Kenana, Veterinary Clinic, Tukh, Qalyubia governorate were investigated ultrasonographically for a year from Dec. 2018 to Dec. 2019. The results showed that that the incidence of pregnancy was higher in winter season (46.74%), and it decreased during summer season (5.98%). The rate of inactive ovaries was higher in sheep (10.34%), while uterine disorders was uppermost in in she-goats (9.75%). Summer season was associated with high rate of inactive ovaries (62.85%), while spring season was accompanied with high incidence of uterine disorders (70.96). Ewes at 60-70 kg body weight and 4-5 years old, and she-goats at 40-50 kg body weight and 2-3 years old showed an improved reproductive index (cyclicity and pregnancy rates).
In chapter II: To depict the ovarian activity in normal cyclic sheep (n=82) and she-goats (n=58) under local Egyptian conditions they were ultrasonographically investigated scanned trans-rectally and ovarian structures (follicles and corpora lutea) during the four seasons of the year were evaluated. The rate of recorded follicular phase was higher (84.28%) than luteal phase (15.71%). While the season impacted the ovarian activity in terms of mean follicle number, and maximum follicle diameter in sheep, it did affect follicle deviation and corpus luteum diameter in she-goats concluding the seasonality of breeding of sheep, and its lacking in she-goats under the local Egyptian conditions.
In chapter III: To buildup equation (s) for the intra-uterine fetal aging, a total number of 110 Baladi sheep and 74 she-goats were investigated ultrasonographically through transrectal and/or transabdominal routs during the period from Day 26 to 112 of gestation. The correlation coefficient (R2) of BBD was higher than CRL in small ruminants (0.9601 and = 0.9598 vs. 0.898 and 0.903, respectively). There was no differences (P=0.258) between the BPD slopes represent ovine and caprine fetal growth rate during the monitored period.