Potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an economically crucial crop species and focus of a big agricultural industry. Drought and salt stresses are two predominant abiotic strain elements ensuing in potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.) and biomass yield losses.
In an attempt to produce salt tolerant potato plants, rapidly growing embryogenic calli were produced in vitro in various concentrations of 2, 4-D (T1 media) and NAA (T2 media). Different explants were used to evaluate callus formation and somatic embryogenesis formation on potato. Friable embryogenic calli which induced from leaves was 85.15 % were formed in the TI medium contained 2,4-D at 4 mg/l. These calli grew fast in comparison to embryogenic calli formed in TII medium. Transformation was achieved with pABI plasmid which contained the barley HVA1 (Hordeum vulgaris abundant protein) and the herbicide resistance (bar) genes using gene gun. After growth and selection, the plantlets (two plantlets grew on regeneration media supplemented with 3mg/ml bialophous) were divided into small pieces and cultured on multiplication media contained BAP at 0.25 mg/l. The explants were subjected to salt stress by the addition of zero, 1000, 3000, 5000 and 7000 ppm NaCl: CaCl2 to MS culture medium. Survival percentages was measured after four weeks for the two subcultures from starting salt treatments as well as shoot number, shoot length and leaves number. The survival percentages in the transformed plants were higher under salt stresses which were recorded 100 % for all explants. Moreover, the growth of the transformed explants were more healthy than the other non-transformed explants. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization confirmed the integration, of the transgenes.