This review article is dealing with the foundation process of new synthetic rabbit line named Moshtohor, characterization of the line, genetic diversity and polymorphism in progesterone receptor gene, and intensification and diffusion of such synthesized rabbits. This line was created using a crossbreeding program between Sinai Gabali and Spanish V-line rabbits followed by several generations of selection and interse mating. Also, this line was selected to increase litter weight at weaning and individual weight at 56 d using the BLUP method under a repeatability animal model. Global assessment and characterization of the line were commented in terms of reproductive efficiency, lactational and maternal abilities, growth rate, carcass traits and semen quality. Recently, molecular analyses searching for some genes associated with certain productive and reproductive traits in this synthesized rabbits were performed. To illustrate the role of the Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University in serving the surrounding community, a developmental project granted from Banque Misr since 2013 and titled "Intensification of breeding and production of genetically improved Moshtohor rabbits" was applied. The Main objectives of this project were: 1) to diffuse Moshtohor line rabbits to the small breeders in Egypt and Qalyoubia governorate in particular, 2) to spread the culture of rabbit breeding in the Egyptian villages, and 3) to evaluate the current situation and prospectives of the project. During the execution of this project, a total of 5024 rabbits, 1406 bucks and 3618 does were distributed to 876 small breeders in 11 villages; 9 of them located in Qalyoubia governorate in Nile Delta and the other two located in Upper Egypt. Means of litter traits in Moshtohor rabbits were 3252±43 g, 6.94±0.24 kit, 5.77±0.27 kit and 3415±130 g for doe weight at kindling, litter size at birth, litter size at weaning and total milk yield during 4 weeks of lactation, respectively, while the means for body weight at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age, daily weight gain from 4 to 8 and from 8 to 12 weeks of age were 589±7 g, 1193±14 g, 1676±18 g, 21.2±0.4 g and 17.5±0.6 g, respectively. Moshtohor rabbits showed good carcass traits where the means for fasting weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and commercial carcass weight were 1775.5 g, 1048 g, 59 % and 1020.3 g, respectively. Regarding semen quality traits,
Moshtohor bucks had superior values and recorded 0.72±0.01 ml, 7.75±0.03, 456.11×106±4.2, 2.41±0.04, 54.82±0.7 %, 81.99±0.25 % and 12.09±0.14 % for ejaculate volume, semen pH, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual sperm motility, live sperm per ejaculate and sperm abnormalities, respectively. Diffusion of the synthesized Moshtohor rabbits could offer another source of meat for the small breeders in Qalyoubia villages, in addition to create some job opportunities. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between Moshtohor rabbits as a synthetic line and their parental rabbits of Spanish V-line and Sinai Gabali were assessed using microsatellite techniques. The polymorphism of the SNP (G/A2464) in progesterone receptor gene (PGR) based on PCR-RFLP were detected. A close relationship between Moshtohor and V-line (0.18) was supported by clustering analysis and the population structure appeared as one admixed mosaic cluster. The highest effective number of alleles for SNP of PGR gene was recorded for Moshtohor line (1.987). The means of observed and expected heterozygosity and the polymorphic information content were 0.840, 0.497 and 0.373, respectively.