International Publication :: Nursing

Title: Health promotion program to improve the lifestyle of school children living in slum areas in helwan governorate
Authors: Mahmoud, SAS (Mahmoud, Sahar A. Sh.)[ 1 ] ; Hanaa, AAY (Hanaa, A. A. Y.)[ 2 ] ; Ismail, SS (Ismail, Safaa S.)[ 1 ]
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The school years are a time when the foundations of a healthy lifestyle are formed and when health promotion programs are likely to have the greatest impact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health promotion program on improving lifestyle of school children living in slum areas. Design: A quasi -experimental design was used. Setting: The study was conducted at two governmental primary schools in Azbat Elwalda, in Helwan Governorate Sample: A stratified multi-stage cluster random sample was used for selection of school children in slum areas, the total number of governmental primary schools in Azbat Elwalda are ( 3 ), two were chosen randomly. One class from fifth grade and one from sixth grade were selected randomly from each school. The total number of children for two schools were 200 (both sexes). Tools: 3 tools were used 1) A structured interviewing questionnaire was used to assess students socio-demographic characteristics, students' perception of social and physical environment of school, students' common health problems during the past two years and students' knowledge about healthy life style. These tools were used before and after program. 2) A physical examination to assess the student from head to toe. 3) An observational checklist for assessing in and out school's environment. Results: the study confirms that diseases of respiratory system had the highest frequencies among the students as follows: less than two fifths for common cold, more than one third for tonsillitis and bronchitis and more than one quarter for influenza. There was difference between before and after program implementation concerning students' health promoting life style, perception of social and physical school environment. The differences were statistically significant for all of variables (P = < 0.001). Conclusion: The study concluded that students perception improved toward their social, physical school environment and their knowledge about healthy life style after implementing the health promotion program. This improvement was proved statistically. Recommendations : The study recommended that a health promotion program are strongly needed to school children to improve their lifestyle especially school children living in slum areas and the necessity of improving school environmental sanitation for the promotion of students health. [Sahar A. Sh. Mahmoud., Hanaa A, A. Y, Safaa S, Ismail. Health Promotion Program to Improve the Lifestyle of School Children Living in Slum Areas in Helwan Governorate] Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4): 618-627] (ISSN: 1097-8135).

Title: Effect of nursing intervention on the quality of life of children undergoing hemodialysis
Authors: Elsayed, E (Elsayed, Ebtisam)[ 1 ] ; El-Soreety, W (El-Soreety, Wafaa)[ 1 ] ; Elawany, T (Elawany, Thanaa)[ 1 ] ; Nasar, F (Nasar, Faten)[ 2 ]
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Renal failure is a major health problem all over the world that significantly lessens Children' s quality of life. Their care is a complex process requires multi disciplinary systems and urgent attention when it is diagnosed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nursing intervention on the Quality of life of children undergoing hemodialysis. The study was conducted at pediatrics heamodialysis units of Tanta and Benha University hospitals. A convenient sample of 70 children with chronic renal failure was included in the study (30 of them from Tanta University hospital and 40 from Benha University hospital). Their ages ranged from 8-18 years, with mean age 12.80years +/- 3.43. Interviewing questionnaire sheet and quality of life inventory scales were used to collect the required data. Data were collected in four phases(Initial phase, developmental phase, implementation phase and evaluation phase). The results of the current study revealed that, most of children were males (56%). A significant improvement in psychological domain score was found post intervention, in comparison to that pre intervention with significant decrease in categories of very poor quality of life (P=0.0001), and the percentage increased with the average and high quality of life (P=0.008and 0.061 respectively). There was no significant improvement in physical, social and school attendance domain score of quality of life post intervention in comparison to that pre intervention. with significant improvement only in high quality of life score of physical domain (P=0.002). Regarding to total score of quality of life, significant improvement was found regarding very poor, average and high quality of life post intervention (p=0.0001.0.010 and 0.005) respectively. Conclusion: Nursing intervention had positive effect on all domains of quality of life, specially psychological domain, which showed significant improvement. So it was recommended that, health education sessions should be conducted in heamodialysis units to all nursing staff as care providers, mothers and children to improve the compliance to the prescribed treatment as well as to help them to adapt with their limitation of the disease and its management. [Ebtisam Elsayed, Wafaa El-Soreety, Thanaa Elawany and Faten Nasar Effect of nursing intervention on the Quality of life of children undergoing hemodialysis. Life Science Journal. 2012; 9(1):77-86] (ISSN: 1097-8135).

Title: Effect of nutritional educational guideline among pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia at rural areas in kalyobia governorate
Authors: Abd ElHameed, HS (Abd ElHameed, Howyida S.)[ 1 ] ; Mohammed, AI (Mohammed, Aziza I.)[ 2 ] ; Abd El Hameed, LT (Abd El Hameed, Lamiaa T.)[ 3 ]
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All pregnant women arc at risk for becoming anemic, that is because iron need for mother and fetus gradually increases during pregnancy and reaches its highest level at the end of the pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nutritional educational guidline (NEG) on knowledge and knowledge related practice of pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) at rural areas. The intervention design was conducted at three maternal and child health care centers in Kalyobia Governorate (Moshtoher, Kafr Shoukr. and Kaha). A total 200 rural anemic pregnant women were selected from these maternal and child health centers. One tool was utilized in this study, a structured interviewing questionnaire for assessment of the studied sample characteristics and their knowledge regarding iron deficiency anemia as well as their knowledge related practice. A significant increase in overall knowledge and knowledge related practice toward healthy nutritional habits after intervention was detected and subsequently the prevalence of anemia slightly decreased after intervention of the NEG (24%), than before. This study clearly showed that NEG can bring about an improvement in knowledge and knowledge related- practice of pregnant women toward IDA. The study recommended that nutrition should be mandated as a required component of comprehensive health care putting clear guidelines of the nutrition services, that nurse should provide to the pregnant women in primary health care facilitation in order to maintain proper health among pregnant women. Follow up HB level though pregnant women in rural area should be taken for early detection of anemia. [Howyida S. Abd ElHameed, Aziza I. Mohammed and Lamiaa T. Abd El Hameed. Effect of Nutritional Educational Guideline among Pregnant Women with Iron Deficiency Anemia at Rural Areas In Kalyobia Governorate. Life Sci J 2012: 9(2):1212-1217]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). 181

Title: The effect of pre-operative preparation program and mothers presence during induction on anxiety level and behavior change in young children undergoing elective surgery
Authors: Sabaq, AG (Sabaq, Amal G.)[ 1 ] ; El-Awady, S (El-Awady, Samah)[ 2 ]
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Perioperative anxiety is a complex combination of fear, apprehension and worry often accompanied by physical sensations. Preoperative preparation programs allow reduce anxiety, it is effective and can prevent many behavioral and physiologic manifestations of anxiety as well. The study aimed to evaluate The effect of pre-operative preparation program and mothers presence during induction on anxiety level and behavior change in young children undergoing elective surgery. This study was carried out in the Pediatric Surgery department at new surgical hospital affiliated to the Zagazig University hospital. A quasi-experimental design was used in this study. The total number of children undergoing elective surgery (appendectomy and herniorrhapy) throughout the year of 2011 were 153. Only 120 child accompanied his/her mother who agree to participate in this study. The participants were randomly and equally assigned by the researchers into two group; study and control group. Data were collected using Speilberger state anxiety inventories to assess the level of children and mothers anxiety, Post Hospitalization Behavioral Questionnaire to assess post-operative behaviors change of children and induction compliance checklist to assess children compliance during induction of anesthesia. The finding of the study indicated that the mean of the state anxiety scores of children in study and control groups before intervention were 45.16 +/- 3.18 and 45.23 +/- 3,19, after intervention 36.63 +/- 2.18 and 44.8 +/- 3.18 respectively. The state anxiety score was lower significantly in the study group prior to surgery than in the control group (P=0.001). While, The mean and standard deviation of the state anxiety scores of mothers in study and control groups before intervention were 41.8 +/- 3.11 and 42.23 +/- 3,12, after intervention 36.8 +/- 2.19 and 43.8 +/- 3.17 respectively. The state anxiety score was lower significantly in the study group prior to surgery than in the control group (P=0.01). The compliance of the children were significantly higher during the induction of anesthesia in the study group as compared with the control groups (65% vs 33.%, p=0.001). Additionally, there was significant differences in the improvement of postoperative eating behaviors and decreased sleeping problems among the study group. It is recommended that The nursing personnel should take the preoperative therapeutic play intervention as a duty and regard it as a role in doing the nursing practices in order to give the children the psychological care beside the routine physical care. Moreover, they should enhance the development of communication skills and coping abilities of children that help in reducing their anxiety. [Amal G. sabaq and Samah El-Awady. The Effect of Pre-Operative Preparation Program and Mothers Presence during Induction on Anxiety Level and Behavior Change in Young Children Undergoing Elective Surgery. Life Sci J 2012;9(4):3798-3807]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). 565

Title: Nurses, practice, knowledge and attitude towards evidence-based practice at yanbu general hospital -kingdom of saudi arabia
Authors: Elarab, HSE (Elarab, Hanan S. Ez)[ 1 ] ; El Salam, SA (El Salam, Soad A.)[ 2 ] ; Behalik, SG (Behalik, Sahar G.)[ 3 ] ; Eltayeb, HE (Eltayeb, Hadeel E.)[ 4 ]
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More than 25 years have already passed since research utilization has been discussed in the nursing literature with enhanced enthusiasm and demands for using research findings into practice. Moreover, the movement of evidence-based practice which started in 1990s has underlined the significance of integrating research utilization in practice. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses towards evidence based practice and factors influencing them. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study, carried out at Yanbu General Hospital in kingdom of Saudi Arabia. collection of data was carried out over a period of 3 months. Results: Study was carried out on 156 nurses, the response rate was 52%, participants below 30 years old were 134 (85.9%), those 30 -40 years old were 16 (10.3%) and those above 40 years old were 6 (3.8%). They were 145 (92.9%) female nurses and 11(7.1%) male, the majority 120 (77%) were registered nurses and the majority 103 (66%) were earned diploma of nursing as their highest education, Most of them 113 (72.4%) work for more than 40 hours per week, the majority 124 (79.1%) have less than 5 years of experience. Studying factors influencing KAP of EBP among nurses revealed non significant difference between nurses either due to educational level or nationality neither in knowledge of terms related E.B.P., Attitude toward E.B.P. and practice of E.B.P. between bachelor earned and diploma, no difference between Saudian and non Saudian nurses as regards knowledge related E.B.P. Whereas Attitude of Saudian nurses toward E.B.P. shows significantly lower percentage than non Saudian, also practice of E.B.P. shows significantly higher percent of non Saudian (60.5%) their sum of self reported practice was always, versus 39.5% of Saudian. Age group difference for knowledge about E.B.P. related terms shows significantly increase percent of knowledge. Attitude towards E.B.P. significantly increase with age. Although self reported practice increase with age yet no significant difference observed. Conclusion: The observed lack of the required knowledge and practice of evidence based practice among nurses in the current study raise the issue of applying evidence based practice in hospitals and other health care facilities and assessing that during reviewing the health institution for renewal of license or accreditation. [Hanan S. Ez elarab; Soad A. El Salam; Sahar G. Behalik and Hadeel E. Eltayeb. Nurses, Practice, Knowledge and Attitude towards Evidence-Based Practice at Yanbu general hospital -kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):1062-1071]. (ISSN:1097-8135). 149

Title: Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products: a new biomarker in diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy
Authors: Issa, HA (Issa, Hesham A.)[ 1 ] ; Elshaer, OS (Elshaer, Osama S.)[ 1 ] ; Awadallah, AM (Awadallah, Ahmed M.)[ 1 ] ; El-Adl, T (El-Adl, Tawfik)[ 2 ]
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Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/d or >200 mcg/min). The interaction of advanced glycation end products with their cellular receptor (RAGE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. RAGE has a circulating secretory receptor form, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), which, by neutralizing the action of advanced glycation end products, might exert a protective role against the development of cardiovascular disease. Objective: to study the serum levels of sRAGE in type 2 diabetic patients and to clarify the possible association with urinary albumin excretion as an early marker of microvascular damage. Patients and Methods: Eighty subjects divided into two groups; group I (patients group) included 60 type 2 diabetic patients. They were subdivided into 2 subgroups: twenty normo-albuminuric diabetic subgroup and forty micro-albuminuric diabetic subgroup. Group II (control group) included 20 apparently healthy individuals of matched age and sex. All cases were subjected for estimation of sRAGE by sandwich ELISA technique together with routine laboratory investigations including fasting blood glucose, s. creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, HbA1C and Microalbumin. Results: sRAGE was significantly lower in microalbuminuric diabetic than normoalbuminuric diabetic and control groups (p