International Publication :: Agriculture

Title: A new antibiotic, th8i8, and its properties
Authors: Rachev, R (Rachev, R); Gesheva, V (Gesheva, V); Tewfike, T (Tewfike, T); Bojkova, S (Bojkova, S); Zvetkova, R (Zvetkova, R)
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Antibiotic TH818 was isolated and purified from a culture broth of Streptomyces fulvoviolaceus 818 by extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The antibiotic TH818 possesses high molecular mass and unique structure, constructed from carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. The hydrolysis experiments showed the presence of six fatty acids (hexadecanoic, hexadecenoic, octadecanoic, iso-nonadecanoic, docosanoic and pentacosanoic acids), four sugars (glucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine), and seven amino acids (threonine, alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, serine and two unidentified). TH818 has a broad spectrum of anti-microbial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi.

Title: Regeneration systems at high frequency from high oleic helianthus annuus l. genotypes
Authors: Mohamed, S (Mohamed, S); Binsfeld, PC (Binsfeld, PC); Cerboncini, C (Cerboncini, C); Schnabl, H (Schnabl, H)
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A rapid and efficient regeneration system via direct organogenesis from two high oleic sunflower genotypes has been developed. Explants of longitudinal bisected shoot apices of 10 days old seedlings were incubated on two different shoot induction media. Shoots from meristem adjacent tissue regenerated within 3 weeks, without a callus phase. The best shoot regeneration (63%) was observed with SIM2 medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts 4.3 g L-1 myoinositol 0.56 mM, thiamine-HCl 0.30 muM, glycine 26.64 muM, nicotinic acid 4.1 muM, pyridoxine-HCl 2.4 muM, sucrose 3% and 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) 0.44 muM. A high rooting efficiency (60-90%) was achieved independent of genotype and rooting media. Considering sunflower as a recalcitrant species, although some differences in the organogenetic response of the genotypes, over 50% of the explants were able to induce direct organogenesis and regenerate whole viable plants. Acclimatized plantlets showed further development reaching the flowering stage and seed production. This regeneration system may be of special value for genetic transformation experiments using biological vectors or direct gene delivering methods like microinjection or particle Lynn.

Title: A mathematical model of direct sun and solar drying of some fermented dairy products (kishk)
Authors: Bahnasawy, AH (Bahnasawy, AH); Shenana, ME (Shenana, ME)
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A mathematical model of direct sun and solar drying of some fermented dairy products (Kishk) was developed. Solar radiation, heat convection, heat gained or lost from the dryer bin wall and the latent heat of moisture evaporation were the main components of the equations describing the drying system. The model was able to predict the drying temperatures at a wide range of relative humidity values. It has also the capability to predict the moisture loss from the product at wide ranges of RH values, temperatures and air velocities. The model showed a dramatic effect of the air velocity on increasing the moisture loss at the beginning of the drying process and became constant which leads to a recommend that it is better to use low temperature with forcing air at the beginning of drying. In the next stages, high temperature without forcing air should be used. The model was validated by using experimental data of the drying temperatures and moisture loss under both direct sun and solar drying systems for five fermented dairy products (Kishk). The predicted values were in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The coefficients of determination for the predicted moisture loss in case of the sun drying system were lower than those under the solar drying. This may be attributed to the deeper grooves and cracks on the surface of the products, the heat conducted from the drying trays and the variation of the measured wind speed. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Title: Physical and mechanical properties of some egyptian onion cultivars
Authors: Bahnasawy, AH (Bahnasawy, AH); El-Haddad, ZA (El-Haddad, ZA); Ei-Ansary, MY (Ei-Ansary, MY); Sorour, HM (Sorour, HM)
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Due to the lack of information about the physical and mechanical properties of onion in Egypt which are very importance to understand the behavior of the product during the post harvesting operations such as harvesting, transporting, sorting, grading, packaging and storage processes and also, it is necessary in processing operations such as cooling, drying and all heat and mass transfer processes, the main objective of this work was to study the physical and mechanical properties to form an improtant database for three of the most popular cultivars (Giza 6 (white), Beheri (red) and Giza 20 (yellow)) of onion in Egypt. These properties include: linear dimensions, shape index, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, frontal surface area, cross-sectional of area, volume, mass, density, static friction coefficient, rolling angle, crushing load and puncture resistance. The equatorial and polar diameters ranged from 5.12 +/- 0.33 to 6.20 +/- 1.5 cm, for all cultivars with coefficient of variation (CV) of 11-25%. Both of Beheri and Giza 20 onion bulbs were spherical in shape and the Giza 6 onion was an oval. The D-gm ranged from 5.48 to 5.98 cm, D-am ranged from 5.50 to 6.01 cm, A(f.s) ranged from 23.3 to 28.81 cm(2) and A(s.c) ranged from 23.96 to 29.52 cm(2) and mass ranged from 78.7 to 115.3 g for all onion cultivars. The volume ranged from 77.2+/-25 to 108.8+/-75 cm(3) with CV of 33.4-69.7%. The density ranged from 1.04+/-0.09 to 1.11+/-0.15 g/cm(3) with CV of 8.04-13.5%. The rolling angle ranged from 20degrees to 31degrees in the stable position and from 14degrees to 23degrees in the none-stable position. The highest values of rolling angles were obtained on the rubber surface followed by the plywood and the galvanized steel surfaces. The rolling angle increases with the onion bulb size (bs). The coefficient of friction (f) ranged from 0.67 to 1.34 for all three cultivars. The highest (f) was obtained on the plywood surface followed by the rubber and the galvanized steel surfaces. Crushing load increased with the onion bs and ranged from 443.3 to 819.7 N for Giza 6 (white onion), 341.4-980.7 N for Beheri (red onion) and from 400 to 780 N for Giza 20 (yellow onion). Penetration load also increased with the onion bs and ranged from 26.9 to 35.9, 26.1 to 43.0 and 27.6 to 45.5 N for same previous order. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Title: Paralytic ileus and subsequent death caused by enteric parasite, strongyloides papillosus, in mongolian gerbils
Authors: Kobayashi, I (Kobayashi, Ikuo)[ 1 ] ; Kajisa, M (Kajisa, Makoto)[ 1 ] ; Farid, AS (Farid, Ayman Samir)[ 1,2 ] ; Yamanaka, A (Yamanaka, Atsushi)[ 1 ] ; Horii, Y (Horii, Yoichiro)[ 1 ]
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Adult worms of Strongyloides papillosus were surgically implanted into the duodenum and successfully established in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). These worms persisted in the small intestine for at least four days after implantation. Following decreased fecal output, however, increased death rate and decreased survival time were observed. The increase in death rate and the decrease in survival time correlated with the increase in the number of implanted adult worms. Animals were then intraperitoneally inoculated with extracts from adult S. papillosus, and the pathogenetic effects of gastrointestinal (GI) motility were assessed by contrast radiography after oral administration of barium sulfate. Paralytic ileus was observed in the GI tracts of Mongolian gerbils and these symptoms intensified with increasing inoculation of adult worm extract. The results suggest that paralytic ileus underlies the subsequent death observed in Mongolian gerbils after implantation of adult S. papillosus. Furthermore, experimental infection with S. papillosus in Mongolian gerbils will provide a good model for laboratory investigations into GI motor disturbances in animals and humans caused by parasites. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Exposure of soil-dwelling nematodes to diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg)
Authors: Meyer, SL (Meyer, S. L.)[ 1 ] ; Halbrendt, JM (Halbrendt, J. M.)[ 2 ] ; Carta, LK (Carta, L. K.)[ 1 ] ; Skantar, AM (Skantar, A. M.)[ 1 ] ; Liu, T (Liu, T.)[ 3 ] ; Abdelnabby, HM (Abdelnabby, H. M.)[ 4 ] ; Vinyard, BT (Vinyard, B. T.)[ 5 ]
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Title: Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: infection decreases plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity in rats
Authors: Farid, AS (Farid, Ayman Samir)[ 1,2 ] ; Horii, Y (Horii, Yoichiro)[ 1 ]
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Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) hydrolyzes ester-containing compounds such as succinylcholine, as well as acting as a scavenger against neurotoxic organophosphates (OPs). We previously found that Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection makes rats more susceptible to OP toxicity by decreasing serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of N. brasiliensis infection on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), brain and diaphragm, as well as serum PON1 activity, in rats at day 7 after infection. N. brasiliensis infection significantly decreased plasma BChE and PON1 activities without significantly altering AChE activity in RBCs, brain and diaphragm. These results provide further insight into the unusual deleterious effects of intestinal nematode infections on body homeostasis. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Title: Diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg); is it active against nematodes?
Authors: Meyer, SLF (Meyer, Susan L. F.)[ 1 ] ; Halbrendt, JM (Halbrendt, J. M.)[ 2 ] ; Carta, LK (Carta, L. K.)[ 1 ] ; Skantar, AM (Skantar, A. M.)[ 1 ] ; Liu, T (Liu, T.)[ 3 ] ; Abdelnabby, HME (Abdelnabby, H. M. E.)[ 4 ] ; Vinyard, BT (Vinyard, B. T.)[ 5 ]
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Title: Toxicity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg) to plant-parasitic and bacterial-feeding nematodes
Authors: Meyer, SLF (Meyer, Susan L. F.)[ 1 ] ; Halbrendt, JM (Halbrendt, John M.)[ 2 ] ; Carta, LK (Carta, Lynn K.)[ 1 ] ; Skantar, AM (Skantar, Andrea M.)[ 1 ] ; Liu, T (Liu, Ting)[ 3 ] ; Abdelnabby, HME (Abdelnabby, Hazem M. E.)[ 4 ] ; Vinyard, BT (Vinyard, Bryan T.)[ 5 ]
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The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is produced by some isolates of the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. DAPG is toxic to many organisms, anti crop yield increases have been reported after application of DAPG-producing P fluorescens. This study was conducted to determine whether DAPG is toxic to selected nematodes. The plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus scribneri and Xiphinema americanum, and the bacterial-feeding nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans, Pristionchus pacificus, and Rhabditis rainai, were immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mu g/ml DAPG. Egg hatch and viability of juveniles and adults were determined. DAPG was toxic to X. americanum adults, with an LD(50) of 8.3 mu g/ml DAPG. DAPG decreased M. incognita egg hatch, but stimulated C. elegans hatch during the first hours of incubation. Viability of M. incognita J2 and of C. elegans 11 and adults was not affected. There were no observed effects on the other nematodes. The study indicated that DAPG is not toxic to all nematodes, and did not affect the tested species of beneficial bacterial-feeding nematodes. Augmentation of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens populations for nematode biocontrol could be targeted to specific nematode species known to be affected by this compound and by other antibiotics produced by the bacteria, or these bacteria could be used for other possible effects, such as induced plant resistance.

Title: Evaluation of milk yield and some related maternal traits in a crossbreeding project of egyptian gabali breed with spanish v-line in rabbits
Authors: Iraqi, MM (Iraqi, M. M.)[ 2 ] ; Garcia, ML (Garcia, M. L.)[ 1 ] ; Khalil, MH (Khalil, M. H.)[ 3 ] ; Baselga, M (Baselga, M.)[ 4 ]
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P>This study was conducted in a four-year rabbit project that aimed to develop a synthetic line named Moshtohor (M) by crossing Sinai Gabali breed (G) with the Spanish V-line (V). The G, V, F(1) (G x V), F(2) (G x V)2 and M line were analysed. Traits of doe body weight at delivery (DBW), litter size at birth (LSB) and at weaning (LSW), milk production during the first, second, third and fourth week of lactation and total milk yield (TMY) were recorded. Data were analysed using a repeatability uni-trait animal model to estimate the genetic parameters and estimable functions of genetic group effects. Based on them and the matrix of their variance-covariance, the crossbreeding parameters were also estimated. Estimates of heritabilities for all the studied traits were low ranging from 0.06 to 0.11 for DBW, LSB and LSW and from 0.0 to 0.06 for milk production traits. Permanent environmental effects were very low ranging from 0.0 to 0.10 for all the traits, except for DBW (0.41). Least square means of V line were superior (p < 0.05) in DBW (3253 versus 3037 g) and LSB (6.71 versus 6.28 young) relative to G breed. M line had superiority in LSB (6.94 young) compared with G breed. M line and G breed were better than V line for milk production traits (3415 and 3236 versus 2893 g for TMY). Significant effects of direct additive were observed for most traits studied (ranged from -6.8 to 20.7%). Effects of individual heterosis for most milk production traits were significant and ranged from 2.1 to 13.9%, but they were not significant for DBW, LSB and LSW. On the opposite side, effects of maternal heterosis for all the traits were not significant.

Title: The antifungal protein afp from aspergillus giganteus prevents secondary growth of different fusarium species on barley
Authors: Barakat, H (Barakat, Hassan)[ 2,3 ] ; Spielvogel, A (Spielvogel, Anja)[ 2 ] ; Hassan, M (Hassan, Mahmoud)[ 3 ] ; El-Desouky, A (El-Desouky, Ahmed)[ 3 ] ; El-Mansy, H (El-Mansy, Hamdy)[ 3 ] ; Rath, F (Rath, Frank)[ 5 ] ; Meyer, V (Meyer, Vera)[ 2,4 ] ; Stahl, U (Stahl, Ulf)[ 1,2 ]
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Secondary growth is a common post-harvest problem when pre-infected crops are attacked by filamentous fungi during storage or processing. Several antifungal approaches are thus pursued based on chemical, physical, or bio-control treatments; however, many of these methods are inefficient, affect product quality, or cause severe side effects on the environment. A protein that can potentially overcome these limitations is the antifungal protein AFP, an abundantly secreted peptide of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus giganteus. This protein specifically and at low concentrations disturbs the integrity of fungal cell walls and plasma membranes but does not interfere with the viability of other pro- and eukaryotic systems. We thus studied in this work the applicability of AFP to efficiently prevent secondary growth of filamentous fungi on food stuff and chose, as a case study, the malting process where naturally infested raw barley is often to be used as starting material. Malting was performed under lab scale conditions as well as in a pilot plant, and AFP was applied at different steps during the process. AFP appeared to be very efficient against the main fungal contaminants, mainly belonging to the genus Fusarium. Fungal growth was completely blocked after the addition of AFP, a result that was not observed for traditional disinfectants such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorine dioxide. We furthermore detected reduced levels of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol after AFP treatment, further supporting the fungicidal activity of the protein. As AFP treatments did not compromise any properties and qualities of the final products malt and wort, we consider the protein as an excellent biological alternative to combat secondary growth of filamentous fungi on food stuff.

Title: Some physical and mechanical properties of garlic
Authors: Bahnasawy, AH (Bahnasawy, Adel H.)
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The physical parameter results showed that the garlic geometric and arithmetic mean diameters ranged from 2.53 to 4.93, and 2.53 to 5.02 cm, respectively according to the bulb size categories. The cloves' length, width and thickness were 1.92 to 2.91, 0.78 to 1.32, and 0.69 to 0.99 cm, respectively. The surface and cross-sectional of areas ranged from 53.31 to 136.4 and 29.1 to 128.4 cm2, respectively. The number of cloves ranged from 18 to 51/bulb according to the bulbs size categories. Bulk density, repose angle and coefficient of contact surface values ranged from 892 to 1007 kg/m(3), 41.52 to 45.04((sic)), and 0.91 to 1.12, respectively, according to the bulb size categories. The chemical properties showed that the emptying (friction) angle ranged from 23.25 to 28.82((sic)), where small bulbs recorded the highest values on the concrete surfaces, while the lowest values were recorded by the large bulbs on the iron surfaces. The friction coefficient decreased with increasing bulb size, where it was the highest (0.8) for the small bulbs on the concrete surfaces; on the other hand, the lowest values (0.36) were recorded for the large bulbs on the iron surfaces. The crushing load of the cloves ranged from 55.6 to 155.0 N, depending on the bulb size. The force required for loosening the cloves from the bulb ranged from 110 to 272 and 101 to 320 N on the horizontal and vertical positions of the bulbs.

Title: An atherogenic lipid profile with low serum paraoxonase-1 activity during nematode infection in rats
Authors: Farid, AS (Farid, Ayman Samir)[ 1,2 ] ; Mido, S (Mido, Shogo)[ 1 ] ; Linh, BK (Linh, Bui Khanh)[ 3 ] ; Hayashi, T (Hayashi, Toshiharu)[ 3 ] ; Horii, Y (Horii, Yoichiro)[ 1 ]
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Inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with cardiovascular diseases and underlying atherosclerosis. The high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated paraoxonase-1 (PON1) enzyme is known to be involved in the protection of serum lipids from such oxidation. Nonetheless, the disturbances of lipid profile during nematode-infected model have not yet been studied. Therefore, we aimed to explore the effects of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in male Wistar rats, a model of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, on hepatic PON1 synthesis and the levels of lipid parameters. Materials and methods Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats fed standard and high-fat diets. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured on day 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14 post-infection (PI). Hepatic PONs and pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression levels were evaluated in a standard diet-fed groups, and the disturbances in lipid profile as well as the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) were measured in high-fat diet-fed groups. Results We found that N. brasiliensis-infected rats fed the standard diet show a significant reduction in serum PON1 activity and down-regulation of hepatic PON1 mRNA expression as well as up-regulation of hepatic IL-1 beta, IL-beta receptor (R), TNF-alpha, and TNFR1 mRNA expressions in association with hepatic recruitments of Kupffer cells and neutrohils. In the presence of the high-fat diet, N. brasiliensis infection increases serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL/VLDL, TBARS and Ox-LDL as well as decreases serum HDL coinciding with a maximum serum PON1 reduction. Conclusions Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection can induce atherogenic lipid profile and reduce serum PON1 activity.

Title: The influence of natural reinforcement fibres on insulation values of earth plaster for straw bale buildings
Authors: Ashour, T (Ashour, Taha)[ 1,2 ] ; Wieland, H (Wieland, Hansjoerg)[ 3 ] ; Georg, H (Georg, Heiko)[ 4 ] ; Bockisch, FJ (Bockisch, Franz-Josef)[ 3 ] ; Wu, W (Wu, Wei)[ 1 ]
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This work aimed to measure the thermal conductivity of some natural plaster materials that could be used for straw bale buildings. Thermal conductivity is very important to determine the insulation value and other thermal parameters for natural plaster materials. Plaster materials consisted of soil, sand and straw. Straw is used as a reinforcement fibre for plaster. Three types of fibres were used such as wheat straw, barley straw and wood shavings. The results indicated that the thermal conductivity of all materials decreased with increasing straw fibre content and decreased with increasing sand content. The straw fibres have greater effect on the change of thermal conductivity than the effect of sand. The results also revealed that plaster reinforced by barley straw fibres has the highest values of thermal insulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Title: Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes, a commercial bacterial bio-insecticide and the peppermint oil for the control the pink stem borer, sesamia cretica led. (lepidoptera : noctuidae)
Authors: Halawa, SM (Halawa, Safaa M.)[ 1 ] ; El-Kholy, MY (El-Kholy, M. Y.)[ 2 ] ; El-Zaher, TRA (El-Zaher, Tahany R. Abd)[ 1 ]
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Steinernema carpocapsae strain All and Heterorhabditis bacterionphora strain HP88, Dipel-2X (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita) were assayed for the control of Sesamia cretica Led. tested Under laboratory and field conditions. The efficacy of S. carpocapsae was a concentration dependent. The lower concentrations (25 and 50 IJs/ml) had no effect within one day; while they showed mortality percentages between 60.0 and 73.3 % after two days. The higher concentration levels (100,200 and 400 IJs/ml) caused mortality percentages ranged between 20.0 and 33.3 % within one clay. H. bacterionphora had no effect at concentrations between 25 and 200 IJs/ml within one day. The insecticidal activity of peppermint oil increased as the applied concentration was increased from 0.13 to 1% inducing larval mortalities from 40 to 93.3%, respectively. Increasing of B. t. kurstaki concentration from 0.13 to 1.5% led to Increase of mortalities of S. cretica larvae from 33.3 to 86.7%, respectively. Some morphological malformations were detected among S. cretica pupae and adults after larval treatments by B. t. var. kurstaki mid peppermint oil. In die field, the intensities of damage after using the four assayed material were statistically insignificant. Both S. carpocapsae and peppermint oil had approximately the same level of activity to the dead heart phenomenon. The mean reduction Percentages of dead heart plants were 62.5 and 56.3 %, respectively. The entomopathogenic nematode, H. bacteriophora showed the lowest level of reduction (28 %) of dead heart plants than control. The yield increased in the treated plants to 3.1 and 3.2 tons/feddan by applying the nematode suspension.

Title: Antimicrobial peptides derived from hen egg lysozyme with inhibitory effect against bacillus species
Authors: Abdou, AM (Abdou, Adham M.); Higashiguchi, S (Higashiguchi, S.); Aboueleinin, AM (Aboueleinin, A. M.); Kim, M (Kim, M.); Ibrahim, HR (Ibrahim, Hisham R.)
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In food industry, Bacillus species are encountered in deteriorating many food products thus shortening their shelf-life. Moreover, Bacillus cereus and the subtilis group (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus pumilus) have been recognized as food poisoning agents. Lysozyme peptides preparation (LzP) is a commercially available as a natural food preservative. Although, UP derived from lysozyme yet it showed only 11% of the lysozyme lytic activity. UP at a concentration of 100 mu g ml(-1) completely inhibited B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, R megaterium, B. mycoides, B. pumilus, B. coagulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. polymexa and B. macerans. However, B. cereus and B. stearothermophilus showed a slightly higher resistance. Interestingly, UP at concentration >= 10 mu g ml(-1) showed inhibitory effect on both vegetative and spore forms of B. subtilis. Moreover, UP was stable at 95 degrees C for 30 min and at different pH values (4.5-7). In conclusion, UP may be useful to control growth of Bacillus spoilage organisms. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Title: Nematode-antagonistic compounds from certain bacterial species
Authors: Abdelnabby, HM (Abdelnabby, H. M.)[ 1 ] ; Mohamed, HA (Mohamed, H. A.)[ 2 ] ; Aly, HEA (Aly, H. E. Abo)[ 3 ]
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The present study was outlined to investigate the role of some bacterial species as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne incognita and Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Three bacterial filtrations, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Serratia marcescens (Sm) and Pseudomonas fluorescence (11) were evaluated. The results exhibited that, Sm and Bt achieved high significant effect for suppressing nematode juveniles with immobilization rate of 100% against the concerned nematode species, while Pf caused 81.7 and 53.2% immobilization of M incognita and T. semipenetrans, respectively. Egg-hatching test was conducted using 24-well tissue culture plates with the bacterial filtrations against M. incognita and T. semipenetrans eggs. Sm and Pf showed significant inhibition rates of egg hatch against tested nematode species. Sm achieved the highest effect against M incognita eggs resulting 41.9% hatchability after 15 days, while the egg hatch of T. semipenetrans was not affected with the filtration of Bt. Filtrate mixtures of bacterial species varied in their effects with respect to the presence of the genus Serratia in the mixture that showed an obvious effect against juveniles and egg hatch of both nematode species. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used for separating the active volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the bacterial filtrates with different organic solvents. Fractions of the bacterial extracted culture broth were assayed for their activities against T. semipenetrans. Bioassay-guided fractionations of the extracted broth were undertaken to identify the compounds using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

Title: Effect of growth promoters (probiotics) supplementation on performance, rumen activity and some blood constituents in growing lambs
Authors: Hillal, H (Hillal, Hany)[ 1 ] ; El-Sayaad, G (El-Sayaad, Gamal)[ 1 ] ; Abdella, M (Abdella, Mohamed)[ 1 ]
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The current study examined the effects of probiotics (Pronifer and More-yeast) supplementation to growing lambs. 25 crossbred (OsimixRahmani) growing lambs of about 6-8 months age and an average initial live body weight of 25 kg were used. Lambs divided into five groups (5 lambs for each group) and the experimental period lasted for 169 days. The control group T-1 received concentrate feed mixture (CFM), group T-2 and T-3 received 1.5 and 3 kg Pronifer/Mg (megagram) CFM and group T-4 and T-5 received 2.5 and 5 kg More-yeast/Mg CFM, respectively. Rumen liquor and blood samples were taken and digestibility trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Results showed higher digestibility values for crude protein (P

Title: An experimental investigation on equilibrium moisture content of earth plaster with natural reinforcement fibres for straw bale buildings
Authors: Ashour, T (Ashour, Taha)[ 1,3 ] ; Georg, H (Georg, Heiko)[ 2 ] ; Wu, W (Wu, Wei)[ 3 ]
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This work focuses on the determination of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of natural plaster materials for straw bale buildings. Earth plasters of four different compositions of cohesive soil and sand combined with reinforcement of three different natural fibre types, wheat straw, barley straw and wood shavings, were investigated. The plaster materials were treated under different temperature (10-40 degrees C) and relative humidity (43-95%). The moisture content is in dynamic equilibrium with environmental condition. The effect of relative humidity is more pronounced than temperature. The test results are discussed with reference to the relevance of the earth plasters as rendering for straw bale buildings. Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model is used to fit the experimental data. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Title: Influence of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the pigment content of oilseed rape, marigold, and beetroot
Authors: Bloem, E (Bloem, Elke)[ 1 ] ; Schroetter, S (Schroetter, Susanne)[ 1 ] ; El-Khayat, ASM (El-Khayat, Abdallah S. M.)[ 2 ] ; Schnug, E (Schnug, Ewald)[ 1 ]
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BLOEM E., SCHROETTER S., EL-KHAYAT A. S. M. & SCHNUG E. 2011. Influence of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the pigment content of oilseed rape, marigold, and beetroot. - Phyton (Horn, Austria) 50 (2): 301-317, with 2 figures. In the past, it was shown that severe symptoms of sulphur (S) deficiency and nitrogen (N) deficiency are related to the pigment content in leaves and flowers of oilseed rape. N and S deficiency both cause chlorosis of leaves by interfering with chlorophyll biosynthesis. S-deficient flowers of oilseed rape change in colour from bright yellow to pale yellow or nearly white flowers, a phenomenon closely linked to the formation of pigments. In the present study, the impact of S and N nutrition on the synthesis of different plant pigment classes was investigated in different plants and plant organs in order to assess a possible influence of fertilisation practices on this food quality parameter. In a pot experiment with oilseed rape (Brassica napus), marigold (Calendula officinalis) and red beetroot (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) the influence of a graded N and S supply on the content of photosynthetic pigments in leaves (chlorophyll, carotenoids) and colour intensity of flowers (flavonoids and carotenoids) of oilseed rape and marigold and in tubers (betacyanin and betaxanthin) of beetroot was determined. The chlorophyll content in leaves of oilseed rape and beetroot increased with increasing N nutrition, while the N and S supply did not affect the chlorophyll content of marigold leaves. Changes in the S supply had no effect on the pigment content of beetroot. The N supply had the strongest influence on the betalain content in beetroot tubers and the colour intensity of flowers of oilseed rape and marigold. In case of oilseed rape, interactions between the S and N supply were found. The colour intensity of oilseed rape flowers increased with increasing S level, while a higher N supply reduced the pigment content.

Title: Some factors affecting production and milk composition characters in a crossbreeding experiment involving gabali and v-line rabbits in egypt
Authors: Iraqi, MM (Iraqi, M. M.); Shenana, ME (Shenana, M. E.); Baselga, M (Baselga, M.)
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Data from 662 litters and 221 samples (two replicates per each sample) of rabbit milk were collected from three different genetic groups [Gabali (G), Wine (V) and GxV (F-1)] to study the effect of line and of some non-genetic factors affecting production and milk composition traits. The studied traits were: number born alive (LSBA); litter size at weaning (LSW); litter weight born alive (LWBA); litter weight at weaning (LWW); total milk yield (TMY) and protein, fat, total solids (TS), ash, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) milk content. The genetic group effect was significant for LSBA [V (7.3) and F-1(7.3) were superior to G (6.6)); LWBA (higher values for V (416 g) and F, (405 g) than for IS (382 g)]; TMY [G (3497 g) and F-1(3486 g) higher than V (3042 g)]; milk fat [F-1 (26%) and G (25%) superior to V (23%)] and milkTS [F-1(42%) superior to G (40%) and V (39%)]. The estimates of the heterosis effect ranged between 1.6% and 12.8% for production and milk gross chemical traits, being significant only for milk fat content (9.1%). The positive values of the heterosis estimates for those traits and the complementarity between the G breed and the V line, the G superior in milk related traits but the V superior in prolificacy, show the interest of their cross and of the synthetic lines derived from them. The heterosis was non-significant for milk mineral content traits. The parity effects were significant for LSBA, fat, TS, ash and K (the maxima were reached at 6(th) or 5(th) parity). The effect of week of lactation was significant for fat, ash and TS, corresponding the maximum values of fat and TS to the 3(rd) and 4(th) week. The year-season or the year-month effects were significant for all traits showing the importance of including these time-period factors into the statistical models proposed for the traits.

Title: Rheological behavior and physicochemical characteristics of goldenberry (physalis peruviana) juice as affected by enzymatic treatment
Authors: Sharoba, AM (Sharoba, Ashraf M.)[ 2 ] ; Ramadan, MF (Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy)[ 1 ]
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Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana) juice was prepared and enzymatically treated with two dosages (300 and 600 ppm) of Pectinex Ultra SP-L, then, the juice was concentrated to 30 and 40 degrees Brix. Rheological properties of juices were studied at a wide range of temperatures (5 to 100C) and shear rate range from 0.3 to 100/s using Brookfield Digital Viscometer. The Herschel-Bulkley, Casson and Bingham rheological models were applied to describe the rheological properties of different juices. These properties are key parameters required to solve food industry problems in numerous areas such as quality control, evaluation of consumer acceptance and texture. The results indicated that juice concentrates behave as non-Newtonian fluids (pseudoplastic) and have a definite yield stress. The Bingham and Casson, plastic viscosity, yield stress, consistency index and flow index decreased with increasing enzyme dosage and temperature. The effect of temperature on the viscosity described by means of an Arrhenius-type equation. The activation energy for viscous flow depends on the total soluble solids. Moreover, sensory evaluation for juices was carried out. In consideration of industrial utilization, detailed knowledge on the rheological and physicochemical characteristics of cape gooseberry juice is of major importance.

Title: Performance of straw bale wall: a case of study
Authors: Ashour, T (Ashour, Taha)[ 1 ] ; Georg, H (Georg, Heiko)[ 2 ] ; Wu, W (Wu, Wei)[ 3 ]
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This research aimed to evaluate a straw bale house located in Bavaria, Germany. An extensive test program was carried out. The experimental work includes compression tests, moisture content, thermal stability of bales and pH. The in situ work includes temperature and relative humidity inside the straw bale wall. The stress-strain behavior of straw bales was investigated including nonlinearity and anisotropy. Thermal stability of bales under constant temperature and relative humidity was studied considering time dependence. The moisture content of straw bale was about 11%, while pH value inside the bale was about 7.29. Moreover, the temperature and the relative humidity between the interior (inside straw bale wall) and the exterior were investigated. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Damage effect of two storage mites (acari: acaridida) and their biology on the shiitake mushroom (lentinula edodes) at three constant temperatures
Authors: Ahmed, N (Ahmed, Nevin)[ 1,2 ] ; Rady, GH (Rady, Gad Hamada)[ 1 ] ; Abdelnabby, H (Abdelnabby, Hazem)[ 1 ] ; Ma, WH (Ma, Weihua)[ 2 ] ; Liu, SS (Liu, Sisi)[ 2 ] ; Wang, M (Wang, Mo)[ 2 ]
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This study aims to estimate the influence of three constant temperatures (20, 25 and 30 degrees C) on the damage effect, population growth, life cycle and longevity of two stored-product mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus) reared on the dried Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) at 80% relative humidity (r.h.) and 14:10 (L:D) h (light: dark) photoperiod. The weight loss of the Shiitake mushroom caused by T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus increased with increasing temperature. The increase in the count of T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus in the rearing cells led to noticeable decrease in the weight of the Shiitake mushroom. The results indicated that T. putrescentiae was more harmful than A. ovatus on the Shiitake mushroom. The r-values of both mite species increased with increase in temperature up to 25 degrees C, whereas the value of r decreased when the temperature increased to 30 degrees C. At 20, 25 and 30 degrees C, the values of r were 0.167, 0.182 and 0.159 for T. putrescentiae and 0.126, 0.140 and 0.115 for A. ovatus, respectively. The developmental time of immature stages, reproductive periods and female longevity of T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus were adversely affected by the increase in temperature. The life cycle of T. putrescentiae varied from 9.26 to 20.64 days and that of A. ovatus ranged from 11.65 to 25.21 days when the temperature increased from 20 to 30 degrees C. The longest longevity of T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus (38.37 and 48.18 days) was recorded at 20 degrees C, whereas the shortest (20.38 and 28.40 days) was found at 30 degrees C. The results showed that T. putrescentiae had lower developmental time and reproductive periods than A. ovatus when reared on the Shiitake mushroom at all the studied temperatures.

Title: Using bicarbonates for controlling late blight disease of potato plants under field conditions
Authors: Abd-El-Kareem, F (Abd-El-Kareem, F.)[ 1 ] ; Fatten, MA (Fatten, M. Abd-El-latif)[ 2 ]
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Late blight disease caused by P. infestans of potato plants was controlled under field conditions using potassium or sodium bicarbonates alone or in combination with Citral. In laboratory experiments, results indicated that complete inhibition in linear growth of P. infestans was obtained with potassium or sodium bicarbonates at 2 % and Citral at 0.5 %. Moreover, in field experiments, results indicated that the most effective treatment was potassium bicarbonate at 2.0 % plus Citral at 0.5 % which reduced the disease severity by 84.4 and 82.4 % during two growing seasons. The highest reduction was obtained with potassium or sodium bicarbonate at 1.0 or 2.0 respectively plus citral at 0.5 % and Redomil which reduced the early blight incidence more than 61.8 % as compared with untreated plants. As for potato yield the highest increased was obtained with potassium bicarbonate at 2.0 % plus Citral at 0.5 % which increased tuber yield by 76.0 and 67.9 % during two growing seasons. All treatments significantly increased the chitinase and beta-1,3 - glucanase activities. The great increased was obtained with potassium bicarbonate at 2.0 or 1.0 % plus Citral which increased the chitinase and beta-1,3 - glucanase activities more than 120.0 and 220.1 % respectively. It could be suggested that combined treatments between potassium bicarbonate plus Citral might be used for controlling late blight disease of potato plants under field conditions. [F. Abd-El-Kareem and Fatten, M. Abd- El- latif. Using bicarbonates for controlling late blight disease of potato plants under field conditions. Life Sci J 2012;9(4):2080-2085] (ISSN:1097-8135). 311

Title: Environmental and health impacts of successive mineral fertilization in egypt
Authors: Abdelhafez, AA (Abdelhafez, Ahmed A.)[ 1,2 ] ; Abbas, HH (Abbas, Hassan H.)[ 3 ] ; Abd-El-Aal, RS (Abd-El-Aal, Rafat S.)[ 3 ] ; Kandil, NF (Kandil, Nabil F.)[ 1 ] ; Li, JH (Li, Jianhua)[ 2 ] ; Mahmoud, W (Mahmoud, Wahballah)[ 4 ]
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Excessive amounts of mineral fertilizers are unnecessarily applied to agricultural soils in Egypt to increase crop yield. The current study aims at assessing the impacts of fertilization with different mineral fertilizers for different cultivation periods on the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and plants grown thereon. In addition, human risks resulted due to the exposure to these metal ions through ingestion, and dermal routes were evaluated. Soil and plant samples were collected from several locations in El-Behira Governorate, Egypt and their heavy metal contents were measured. The result indicated that there is a continuous accumulation of heavy metals in the soils and the plants grown thereon. Calculation of the hazard index (HI) revealed that humans, especially children, have a potential health risk for both Pb and Cd, which have levels greater than the safe level (1). Finally, the obtained results showed that the continuous application of mineral fertilizers containing high levels of heavy metals pose a potential health threat.

Title: Modulation of paraoxonases during infectious diseases and its potential impact on atherosclerosis
Authors: Farid, AS (Farid, Ayman Samir)[ 1,2 ] ; Horii, Y (Horii, Yoichiro)[ 1 ]
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The paraoxonase (PON) gene family includes three members, PON1, PON2 and PON3, aligned in tandem on chromosome 7 in humans and on chromosome 6 in mice. All PON proteins share considerable structural homology and have the capacity to protect cells from oxidative stress; therefore, they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, particularly atherosclerosis. The major goal of this review is to highlight the modulation of each of the PONs by infective (bacterial, viral and parasitic) agents, which may shed a light on the interaction between infectious diseases and PONs activities in order to effectively reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

Title: Impact of applying neochetina bruchi (hustache), (coleoptera: curculionidae) on flowering and water loss through plant leaves for biological control of water hyacinth
Authors: Fayad, YH (Fayad, Y. H.)[ 1 ] ; Shalaby, FF (Shalaby, F. F.)[ 2 ] ; Hafez, AA (Hafez, A. A.)[ 2 ] ; El Zoghby, IRM (El Zoghby, I. R. M.)[ 1 ]
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Two days after releasing 15 Neochetina bruchi (Hustache) adults over 10 water hyacinth plants grown in a plastic bucket filled with 15 lit. of water in 10 replicates, 28.1% reduction in inflorescence was recorded. The rate of reduction increased through successive weeks to reach a maximum of 86.8% after 9 weeks from weevils release compared to non infested plants. The inhibition of inflorescence rate was proportional to the rate of damage caused by Neochetina feeding, stages to water hyacinth. Elimination of flowering by the action of Neochetina reflects, undoubtedly, in reducing seeds' production. N. bruchi reduced, also, water loss caused as a result of evapotranspiration through plant leaves. Nine weeks after weevils' release, only 4.2 lit. of water was lost, opposed to 7.7 lit. from the same amount of water occupied with uninfested water hyacinth, saving 44% of water. This percentage reached 77% after 14 weeks of release to confirm the important role of Neochetina weevil in reducing water loss through evapotranspiration by adults' feeding that reduce plant leaves exposed area.

Title: Impact of some pesticides on pupae of the parasitoid eretmocerus mundus (mercet) and encarisa formosa (gahan) under laboratory conditions
Authors: Abu-Tara, R (Abu-Tara, Randa); Samara, F (Samara, Fawzy)[ 1 ] ; Gamal, M (Gamal, Magd); Shalaby, F (Shalaby, Fawzy)[ 2 ] ; Assaf, S (Assaf, Samir); Rostom, G (Rostom, Ghassan)
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Efficacies of six different pesticides (each used in two concentrations according to recommendations of the manufacturing companies) on pupae of the two hymenopterous aphelinids, Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) and Encarsia formosa (Gahan) (parasitoids of the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci) were estimated under laboratory conditions. Results confirmed that Er. mundus was, generally, more susceptible to pesticides (significantly higher pupal mortality rates;5.4 - 87.5%, among treated individuals) than E. formosa (5-51.4% mortality). Highest efficacy on the two parasitoid species resulted from treatments by the acaricide diafenthiuron which caused 71.9 and 87.5% pupal mortality of Er mundus pupae by the low and high concentrations, respectively and 45.7 and 51.4%, respectively among pupae of E. formosa. The acaricide fenpyroximate came next as it led to 64.7 & 73.5% and 27.5 & 45% mortalities among pupae of Er mundus and E. formosa, respectively. On the contrary, the least effective was the insecticide pymetrozine which caused the lowest mortality rates (5.4, 16.2 and 5 & 7.5% among pupae of the two parasitoids, respectively). The remaining three pesticides could be arranged, descendingly, according to the recorded mortality rates as; the insecticide pyridaben, then the two fungicides cymoxanil+famoxadone and Copper hydroxide. According to the obtained results, the insecticide, pymetrozine and the fungicide, copper hydroxide may be, fairly, recommended for insect and fungus control in integration with releasing of Er. mundus or/and E. formosa for whitefly control, as these two pesticides proved the relatively safest on the two parasitoid species. On the contrary, the two acaricides diafenthiuron and fenpyroximate and, also, the insecticide pyridaben are better to be applied at times when the two parasitoids under investigation are not released.

Title: Comparative biological aspects of the two coccinellid species; coccinella undecimpunctata l. and hippodamia convergens guer. under laboratory conditions
Authors: El-Heneidy, AH (El-Heneidy, A. H.)[ 1 ] ; Hafez, AA (Hafez, A. A.)[ 2 ] ; Shalaby, FF (Shalaby, F. F.)[ 2 ] ; El-Din, IAB (El-Din, I. A. Bahy)[ 1 ]
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Comparative study of major biological aspects; duration, feeding capacity, longevity and fecundity of the two common coccinellid species; Coccinella undecimpunctata L. and Hippodamia convergens Guer., when fed on the cowpea aphid species, Aphis craccivora Koch. was carried out under laboratory conditions. Total larval durations of C. undecimpunctata were 13.6 +/- 0.08, 13.02 +/- 0.12, 11.2 +/- 0.12 and 10.18 +/- 0.09 days and those of H. convergens were 12.91 +/- 0.17, 12.04 +/- 0.16, 10.78 +/- 0.21 and 8.84 +/- 0.26 days, when they were fed on 1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) nymphal instars of A. craccivora, respectively. Feeding capacity of the larval stage of C. undecimpunctata was; 1440.68 +/- 12.17, 1149.36 +/- 9.65, 809.65 +/- 6.68 and 661.14 +/- 4.74 nymphs while that of H. convergens was; 1107.43 +/- 9.61, 786.33 +/- 8.60, 533.20 +/- 5.65 and 370.25 +/- 3.79 nymphs, when larva of each species was fed on each of the four nymphal instars of A. craccivora, respectively. Total feeding capacity of the two predatory adults was the highest during the ovipositonal period; it ranged between 207 - 263 nymphs/adult/day. Female's longevity averaged 78.05 +/- 2.26 and 48.80 +/- 1.66 days for C. undecimpunctata and H. convergens, respectively. When adults of C. undecimpunctata and H. convergens were fed on A. craccivora nymphs, a single mated female deposited 880.85 (742-983) and 729 (589-851) eggs from which hatchability percentages were 81 and 94%, respectively.

Title: On-farm evaluation of low-pressure drip irrigation system for smallholders
Authors: Mostafa, H (Mostafa, Harby)[ 1 ] ; Thormann, HH (Thoermann, Hans-Heinrich)[ 2 ]
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The aim of this paper was to evaluate the performance of a low-pressure drip system (LPS) for three years of service, to calculate the consumptive working time and costs of maintenance and laterals retrieving before harvesting and to determine benefits and problems with drip irrigation. Drip irrigation provides the opportunity to save water and the potential to increase net income by applying water at the right quantity and at the right time. Small to medium fields would benefit from the LPS irrigation system which has the ability to distribute the amount of water applied. LPS is a well-researched system for drip irrigation, typically that available for furrow irrigated crops. There are significant agronomic advantages of using a low-pressure, low-flow drip system. These advantages translate into measured improved distribution uniformity when compared to flood irrigated crops and energy savings compared to flood and sprinkler irrigated crops. The old (reused) drip line leads to a decrease in distribution uniformity and an increase in costs, when the distribution uniformity decreased by 10.5 and 21.6% for reusing the laterals in the second and third year, respectively. Moreover, the cost of repairing laterals was more than 5 and 6.5 times higher for both the 2nd and 3rd season. Many disadvantages of drip lines retrieval can be observed, because labour and maintenance are more intensive; there is a risk of mechanical damage to laterals especially if they are reused; increased management skills and experience are needed; and increased retrieval costs arise season after season.

Title: Assessment of trace and heavy metal distribution by four sequential extraction procedures in a contaminated soil
Authors: He, QS (He, Qingsong)[ 1 ] ; Ren, Y (Ren, Yue)[ 2 ] ; Mohamed, I (Mohamed, Ibrahim)[ 3,4 ] ; Ali, M (Ali, Maha)[ 3 ] ; Hassan, W (Hassan, Waseem)[ 4 ] ; Zeng, FG (Zeng, Fangui)[ 5 ]
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Four sequential extraction procedures (Sposito, Tessier, Silveira and Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR)) were used to evaluate the distribution of some metals (Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn) in a contaminated soil around a mining area. The results showed that Fe and Zn were mainly recovered in the recalcitrant soil fractions, while Cd was primarily localized in the exchangeable fraction. Soil Cu was highly associated with organic matter fraction. The amorphous Fe fraction in Silveira could be recognized as part of the Fe-Mn oxide fraction in Tessier and BCR procedures, while the crystalline Fe oxide fraction was classified into the residual fraction in Sposito, BCR and Tessier schemes. Although the same reagent was used to extract target fraction, less carbonate-bound Cu, Cu and Zn were extracted in Tessier procedure as compared to Silveira method, while Tessier scheme yielded a higher proportion of Fe, Cu and Zn in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction than BCR method. Due to the lack of uniformity of experimental conditions and the differences in extraction reagents, the extraction efficiency of metal species varied with the sequential extraction schemes. Therefore, care should be taken when comparing the results obtained by different sequential extraction procedures.

Title: Evaluation of releasing the predator, hippodamia convergens (geur.) (coleoptera: coccinellidae) against the cotton aphid, aphis gossypii glover, infesting squash plants under semi-field conditions
Authors: El-Din, IAB (El-Din, Bahy I. A.)[ 1 ] ; Shalaby, FF (Shalaby, F. F.)[ 2 ] ; El-Heneidy, AH (El-Heneidy, A. H.)[ 1 ] ; Hafez, AA (Hafez, A. A.)[ 2 ]
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After being reared in laboratory on artificial diet, efficacy of the predatory species Hippodamia convergens (Geur.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated against the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover under semi-field conditions. Adults and 3rd larvae were released at two different rates (80 and 120 individuals) against A gossypii on squash plants in a screen house. Results showed that the mean relative population densities of the aphid throughout the experiments were; 6761.75, 2114.71, 1765.08, 1614.58 and 1382.08 in case of control; release of 80 and 120 larvae and release of the same numbers of adults, respectively. Reduction percentages of aphid population in case of releasing 80 and 120 larvae and those of adults compared to the control were; 67.25, 72.45, 76.73, and 79.27%, respectively. Highest reduction percentage (79.27%) was obtained after releasing H. convergens at a rate of one adult predator : 73 prey individuals. The results indicated that H. convergens is a potential predator that can be, successfully, used for biological control of A gossypii.

Title: Role of edta in arsenic mobilization and its uptake by maize grown on an as-polluted soil
Authors: Abbas, MHH (Abbas, Mohamed H. H.)[ 2 ] ; Abdelhafez, AA (Abdelhafez, Ahmed A.)[ 1 ]
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EDTA amendments are widely used for micronutrient fertilization in arid soils, besides their effectiveness in the remediation process of heavy metal from contaminated soils. However, the persistence of EDTA in arsenic contaminated soil may have further negative effects on the grown plants. To investigate the influences of EDTA on soil As, a pot experiment was conducted using a sandy clay loam As-polluted soil treated with gradual rates of EDTA (0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5 mmol kg(-1)) and planted with maize for two months. The key findings reveal that EDTA applications increased AB-DTPA extractable and water soluble As significantly. Such increases seemed to be the main reasons behind the increase in As uptake by maize plants as the addition of EDTA at the rates of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mmol kg(-1) increased significantly As uptake by shoots 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0 folds, respectively compared to the untreated soil. On the other hand, As uptake by roots did not increase significantly except with the highest application rates of 2.5 and 5.0 mmol kg(-1). The results also show that arsenic translocation factor (IF) values were too low to attain successful phytoextraction. In conclusion, the bioavailable fraction of As is important to investigate the phytoextraction and phytotoxicity of As. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Title: Genetic analysis for semen traits in a crossing program of saudi aradi with damascus goats
Authors: Mohammed, KM (Mohammed, K. M.)[ 1 ] ; Khalil, MH (Khalil, M. H.)[ 2 ] ; Al-Saef, AM (Al-Saef, A. M.)[ 3 ]
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A crossbreeding program between Aradi Saudi breed (A) of goats with Syrian Damascus breed (D) was practiced for six years in two experiments (dairy experiment in Jouf and meat experiment in Qassim) applying bio-techniques of estrous synchronization and artificial insemination. The breeding plan permitted to produce four genetic groups of AA, DD, 1/2D1/2A and 3/4D1/4A in each experiment separately. A total number of 1800 ejaculates collected from 298 bucks were evaluated for volume of ejaculate (EV), pH, sperm concentration (SC), total motile sperm (TMS), total sperm output (TSO), percentages of motile (MS), live (LS), abnormal (AS) and dead sperms (DS). Animal models were used to estimate the heritabilities and permanent environmental effects, while a generalized least square procedure was used to estimate individual additive genetic effects, individual heterosis, maternal heterosis and individual recombination effects. Heritabilities for most semen characteristics were low or somewhat moderate and ranging from 0.08 to 0.23, while the permanent environmental effects were slightly higher than the respective heritabilities since the estimates ranged from 0.10 to 0.29. Estimates of individual additive effects for SC, TMS and TSO were in favour of Damascus bucks relative to Aradi bucks by 0.2, 0.43 and 0.44 x 10(9) per ml in the dairy experiment and by 0.08, 0.13 and 0.11 x 10(9) per ml in the meat experiment, respectively. Significant individual heterotic improvements (with a range of 4.9-26.5%) were recorded in the dairy and meat experiments for EV (0.075 ml vs. 0.085 ml), SC (0.25 x 10(9) per ml vs. 0.11 x 10(9) per ml), TMS (0.275 x 10(9) per ml vs. 0.125 x 10(9) per ml), and TSO (0.33 x 10(9) per ml vs. 0.155 x 10(9) per ml), associated with significant reduction in percentage of DS (5.5% vs. 1.55%). Crossbred dams showed significant maternal heterotic improvements in semen of their crossbred bucks in both dairy and meat experiments for EV (0.058 ml vs. 0.055 ml; P < 0.05), SC (0.15 x 10(9) per ml vs. 0.09 x 10(9) per ml; P < 0.05), TMS (0.225 x 10(9) per ml vs. 0.085 x 10(9) per ml; P < 0.05), and TSO (0.58 x 10(9) per ml vs. 0.115 x 10(9) per ml; P < 0.01), associated with favourable significant increases in MS (3.3% vs. 4.05%; P < 0.05) and LS (3.7% vs. 2.25%; P < 0.05) along with a reduction in percentage of DS (43% vs. 2.25%; P < 0.05); the estimates ranging from 3.3 to 34.1%. The estimates of individual recombination losses for most semen parameters were favourable and non-significant. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Efficacy of pea flour as an antifeedant against two stored-food mites (acari: acaridae) fed on dried medicinal chinese herbs
Authors: Ahmed, N (Ahmed, Nevin)[ 1,2 ] ; Wang, M (Wang, Mo)[ 1 ] ; Shu, SH (Shu, Shaohua)[ 1 ] ; Rady, GH (Rady, Gad Hamada)[ 2 ] ; Wang, ZQ (Wang, Zhangqian)[ 3 ]
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Pea flour (Pisum sativum L.) is toxic to some stored-product pests. Botanical pesticides that contained efficient natural compounds have highlighted to be used for the control of storage mites. In the current investigation, we evaluated the effect of pea flour as an antifeedant on two stored-product mites, namely Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau, 1878) fed on two medicinal Chinese herbs: Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major and Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen. The experiment was carried out from March to May 2012 under the optimal growth conditions of storage mites at constant temperature (25 degrees C) and 85 +/- 5% relative humidity (RH) in the dark. Pea flour was used at five concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%). The values of LC50, LC90 and mortality of T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus were recorded at four periods (7, 14, 21 and 28 days), while their population dynamics were determined only after 21 days. The use of pea flour as an antifeedant was very efficient for the control of T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus adults. The controlling efficiency of pea flour improved due to the increase of its applied dose. The LC50 and LC90 estimates showed that pea flour was more toxic for T. putrescentiae than for A. ovatus. The concentration of 1% pea flour was responsible for more than 65% and 88% mortality of A. ovatus on C. pinnatifida and C. lachryma-jobi after 28 days, respectively. However, this concentration was sufficient to kill all individuals (100% mortality) of T. putrescentiae as the concentration of 10% pea flour. The addition of pea flour caused considerable decreases in the rate of the increase (r-value) of T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus. The highest r-values of T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus were recorded on the control treatment (0% pea flour), whereas the lowest values were observed at 1% and 10% concentrations of pea flour. The 1% concentration of pea flour is highly suggested to be used as a good and economical dose to control both of T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus on the studied Chinese herbs.

Title: Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of lead molybdate by modifying with fullerene
Authors: Dai, K (Dai, Ke)[ 1 ] ; Yao, Y (Yao, Yong)[ 2 ] ; Liu, H (Liu, Hui)[ 2 ] ; Mohamed, I (Mohamed, Ibrahim)[ 3 ] ; Chen, H (Chen, Hao)[ 2 ] ; Huang, QY (Huang, Qiaoyun)[ 1 ]
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In this study, fullerene-modified lead molybdate (C-60-PbMoO4) was prepared via a hydrothermal method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown that the introduction of C-60 reduces the crystallite size of PbMoO4, slightly influences the textual properties and optical characteristics (UV-vis absorption). The effect of C-60 content on the photocatalytic activity of C-60-PbMoO4 was studied in the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under UV light and visible light irradiation. After modification with C-60, the photocatalytic activity of PbMoO4 increased 3.8 times at a C-60 weight ratio of 0.5 wt% under UV light irradiation, and 4.1 times at a C-60 weight ratio of 5.0 wt% under visible light irradiation. The significant photocatalytic activity of C-60-PbMoO4 was attributed to the excellent light absorption and charge separation on the interfaces between C-60 and PbMoO4. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Yield changes of bt-mh63 with cry1c* or cry2a* genes compared with mh63 (oryza sativa) under different nitrogen levels
Authors: Jiang, Y (Jiang, Yang)[ 1 ] ; Huang, SQ (Huang, Shengqi)[ 1 ] ; Cai, ML (Cai, Mingli)[ 1 ] ; Li, CF (Li, Chengfang)[ 1 ] ; Kong, X (Kong, Xing)[ 1 ] ; Zhang, F (Zhang, Fan)[ 1 ] ; Mohamed, I (Mohamed, Ibrahim)[ 1,2 ] ; Cao, CG (Cao, Cougui)[ 1 ]
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Field performance of insect-resistant transgenic rice needs to be meticulously evaluated before it is commercialized. To our knowledge, little information are available about the field performance of Bt rice with cry1C* or cry2A* genes under different nitrogen (N) levels. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the yield performance and yield-related traits of Bt-MH63 under three N levels (0, 150 and 195 kg N ha(-1)). The results showed that MH63 (cry1C*) had lower grain yield than MH63 at all N levels due to the reduced grain filling percentage. Furthermore, MH63 (cry1C*.) as compared with MH63 had lower dry matter translocation efficiency and higher reservation of soluble sugar in stem and sheath at mature at all N levels. At 0 kg N ha(-1), grain yield and internal N use efficiency (IEN) of MH63 (cry2A*) were significantly lower than those of MH63 possibly due to the leaf premature aging of MH63 (cry2A*). In contrast, there were no significant differences in the grain yield and leaf senescence between MH63 (cry2A*) and MH63 at 150 and 195 kg N ha(-1). The results indicated that the incorporation of cry1C* or cry2A*. caused varying degrees of yield reduction in rice due to different agronomic reasons. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Protective role of spirulina platensis against acute deltamethrin-induced toxicity in rats
Authors: Abdel-Daim, MM (Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.)[ 1 ] ; Abuzead, SMM (Abuzead, Said M. M.)[ 2 ] ; Halawa, SM (Halawa, Safaa M.)[ 3 ]
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Deltamethrin is a broad-spectrum synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes. However, its human and animal exposure leads to hepatonephrotoxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the hepatonephroprotective and antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis against deltamethrin toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. Deltamethrin treated animals revealed a significant increase in serum biochemical parameters as well as hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation but caused an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. Spirulina normalized the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, uric acid, urea and creatinine. Furthermore, it reduced deltamethrin-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, it could be concluded that spirulina administration able to minimize the toxic effects of deltamethrin by its free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.

Title: Impacts of inorganic ions and temperature on lead adsorption onto variable charge soils
Authors: Ugochukwu, N (Ugochukwu, Nkwopara)[ 1 ] ; Mohamed, I (Mohamed, Ibrahim)[ 1,2 ] ; Ali, M (Ali, Maha)[ 2 ] ; Iqbal, J (Iqbal, Javed)[ 3 ] ; Fu, QL (Fu, Qingling)[ 1 ] ; Zhu, J (Zhu, Jun)[ 1 ] ; Jiang, GJ (Jiang, Guanjie)[ 1 ] ; Hu, HQ (Hu, Hongqing)[ 1 ]
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The effect of inorganic ions and temperature on lead (Pb2+) adsorption was evaluated on three acidic soils: yellow-brown soil (YBS), latosol soil (IS), and lateritic red soil (LRS). The results showed that the adsorption of Pb2+ in the presence of anions decreased in the order: SO42- > NO3- = Cl-, while in the presence of cations, it reduced in the order: K+ > Ca2+. Accordingly, the contamination of YBS, IS and LAS soils with Pb2+ was more noticeable when they contained more NO3-, Cl- and Ca2+ than SO42- and K+. The distribution coefficient (K-d) of Pb2+ declined in the order: YBS > IS > LRS in the presence of anions. Adsorption and K-d values of Pb2+ were mainly dependent on ion types and altered surface properties caused by the adsorption and/or the formation of ion complexes. The K-d values enhanced slightly with increasing temperature up to 35 degrees C and then decreased at 45 degrees C. Based on the thermodynamic parameters, including the heat of reaction (Delta H), entropy change (Delta S) and the free energy change (Delta G), the adsorption process of Pb2+ on YBS, LS and LRS soils was endothermic and impetuous at low temperatures, whereas it was exothermic and non-spontaneous at high temperatures. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Microcalorimetric evaluation of soil microbiological properties under plant residues and dogmatic water gradients in red soil
Authors: Hassan, W (Hassan, Waseem)[ 1 ] ; Chen, WL (Chen, Wenli)[ 1 ] ; Huang, QY (Huang, Qiaoyun)[ 1,2 ] ; Mohamed, I (Mohamed, Ibrahim)[ 2,3 ]
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A study of 6months duration was carried out to investigate the effect of water regimes and organic amendments on the soil microbial biomass and microbial population under Red soil collected from Hunan Providence, China. The soil microbial biomass and population were measured with traditional methods and results obtained by conventional methods, corroborated with microcalorimetry. The incorporation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw (RS) and green manure (GM), especially at high rates, enhanced the soil microbial activities. We observed that the use of GM exhibited more significant stimulating effects on microbial activities than RS. Similarly, water regimes, 25% (W1) and 200% (W2) of water holding capacity, also had significant effects on microbial activities. Comparing the effects of water levels, we noticed that W2 had a significant negative influence on soil microbial biomass and population. To compare the results of conventional methods and to check the sensitivity of microcalorimetry, the thermodynamic parameters, microbial growth rate constant (k), total heat evolution (Q), peak height (P-max) and peak time (t(max)) were calculated. Highest P-max, k and Q were observed in GM treatments at water regime W1, while highest t(max) values were recorded in CK (control) and RS treatments at W2. The microcalorimetric parameters, P-max, k and Q were positively correlated, whereas t(max) negatively linked with microbial biomass and population at p

Title: Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in some ecosystem components of manzala lake
Authors: Azab, MM (Azab, M. M.)[ 1 ] ; Darwish, AA (Darwish, A. A.)[ 1 ] ; Mahmoud, HA (Mahmoud, Hend A.)[ 2 ] ; Sdeek, FA (Sdeek, Fayza A.)[ 2 ]
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To evaluate the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contamination of Manzala Lake, its ecosystem was investigated during the winter season (December to March). The studied ecosystem components were water, sediment, aquatic weeds, and fishes in four locations. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Pollutant levels of total OCPs showed significantly high levels in the water areas of Round road (46.253 ng/ml), Port-Said Damietta road (19.301 ng/ml), followed by Bughas El-Rasoah (5.539 ng/ml), then Ashtoum El Gamel (natural reserve area now) (0.289 ng/ml). Organochlorines were detected in sediment only in Round road (3.359 mu g/kg) and Port-Said Damietta road (0.171 mu g/kg) by significant order while they were undetectable in Ashtoum El Gamel and Bughas El-Rasoah. Total OCPs in aquatic weeds ranged between 0.194 mu g/kg in Port-Said Damietta and 0.026 mu g/kg in Ashtoum El Gamel. While OCPs were 0.160 and 0.153 mu g/kg in Round road and Bughas El-Rasoah, respectively. Concerning fish muscles OCPs were significantly higher in the Round road area (0.397 mu g/kg) followed by the Port-Said Damietta road (0.258 mu g/kg), and finally, Ashtoum El Gamel samples (0.126 mu g/kg). The results revealed the direct relation for the accumulation of OCPs between studied ecosystem parameters at the Manzala Lake during the winter season. Results also demonstrated that fish samples collected from the Manzala Lake in the studied areas were contaminated with levels of organochlorines, not higher than the maximum permissible level recorded by FAO/WHO, and that the public is not at risk with fish consumption.

Title: Genetic and phytochemical analysis of the in vitro regenerated pilosocereus robinii by issr, sds-page and hplc
Authors: Khattab, S (Khattab, Salah)[ 1 ] ; El Sherif, F (El Sherif, Fadia)[ 1 ] ; El-Garhy, HA (El-Garhy, Hoda A.)[ 2 ] ; Ahmed, S (Ahmed, Safwat)[ 3 ] ; Ibrahim, A (Ibrahim, Amany)[ 3 ]
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Pilosocereus robinii is a rare species which is experiencing sudden population collapse. Identifying and developing effective conservation and management strategies to halt the forestall extinction of this species is crucial. The present study was conducted to assess the best conditions for in vitro propagation of this plant in regard to its morphogenic, genetic as well as the chemical potentials. A successful in vitro propagation system of P. robinii has been developed. MS hormone-free medium induced the best root morphogenic potential. The plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse at 100% survival rate. Besides, the somaclonal variations between the in vitro raised plants were analyzed using PCR-ISSR markers and SDS-PAGE protein, where the regenerated explants on MS medium supplemented with TDZ were the highest in inducing new specific marker bands. Sh6 ISSR primer showed the highest polymorphism value, 81.8% with 33 total amplified fragments, while Sh3 ISSR primer showed the lowest value with polymorphic percentage of 143%. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE protein analysis showed no variation in protein pattern of the studied treatments. On the other side, HPLC analysis of the in vitro plantlets extracts has shown that 2iP based treatments were the highest in organic acids accumulation, while the phenolic constituents' accumulation was found to reach its peak in the BA based treatments. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Assessment of yield advantages of bt-mh63 with cry1c* or cry2a* genes over mh63 (oryza sativa l.) under different pest control modes
Authors: Jiang, Y (Jiang, Yang)[ 1 ] ; Pan, SG (Pan, Shenggang)[ 2 ] ; Cai, ML (Cai, Mingli)[ 1 ] ; Li, CF (Li, Chengfang)[ 1 ] ; Zhan, M (Zhan, Ming)[ 1 ] ; Wang, JP (Wang, Jinping)[ 1 ] ; Mohamed, I (Mohamed, Ibrahim)[ 1,3 ] ; Cao, CG (Cao, Cougui)[ 1 ]
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Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice had been successfully cultivated to maintain yield potential of rice under pest invasion. Yield and resistance performance of the transgenic Bt rice are important to be meticulously evaluated under different pest pressures. Field experiments were conducted to investigate field performances of Bt-MH63 with cry1C* or cry2A* genes under four pest control modes: chemical control for all the pests (MPC), no chemical control for the target pests (MNTP), chemical control for the target pests (MTP) and no chemical control for all the pests (MNPC). The results showed that the maximum yield advantages of MH63 (cry1C*) and MH63 (cry2A*) over MH63 were 8.4 and 25.4% (P < 0.05) under MNTP, respectively. The grain yield of MH63 (cry1C*) was lower than that of MH63 under MPC and MTP. Moreover, the grain yield of MH63 (cry2A*) was lower than that of MH63 under MTP only. The correlation analysis revealed that the yield advantages of Bt-MH63 over MH63 were positively correlated with the damage to MH63 (expressed as percentage of white leaves) caused by leaffolders (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee). Although MH63 (cry1C*) and MH63 (cry2A*) showed great differences in Bt protein contents in their leaves, they had high effective resistances to leaffolders. It can be concluded that Bt-MH63 had obvious yield advantages over MH63 when no pesticides were applied against the target pests. However, yield reductions in Bt-MH63 were existed when pesticides were applied against the target pests. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Autolysis detection and evaluation of some lactic acid bacteria by renaturing sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction assays
Authors: Al-Saleh, AA (Al-Saleh, Abdulrahman A.)[ 1 ] ; Ismail, EA (Ismail, Elsayed A.)[ 1,2 ] ; Metwalli, AA (Metwalli, Ali Am)[ 1,3 ]
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Eleven lactic acid bacterial strains were tested for autolysis ability and the presence of autolytic enzymes by renaturing sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of lysogenic strains were performed. Autolysis in a buffer system was observed in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20080, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis DSM 20088, B. angulatum DSM 20098 and Streptococcus thermophillus DSM 20617. Mitomycin C induction of prophage was demonstrated in B. longum subsp. infantis DSM 20088, B. angulatum DSM 20098, Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20242 and S. thermophillus DSM 20617. The presence of genes encoding known bacteriophage lysins was demonstrated by a PCR assay and correlated well with the autolytic phenotypes of the strains, indicating that PCR screening is useful in the rapid identification of autolytic strains.

Title: Water saving scenarios for effective irrigation management in egyptian rice cultivation
Authors: Mostafa, H (Mostafa, Harby)[ 1 ] ; Fujimoto, N (Fujimoto, Naoya)[ 2 ]
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Developing ideal irrigation management methods in rice production to lessen water consumption will free-up water for other users. Water use could be minimized with proper management techniques. It is necessary to highlight the threats of water scarcity and drought, and reiterate the importance of efficient water management for rice production and the urgent need to take action to solve the underlying problems in considering water security. From here, this study was designed to decide whether water can be preserved in rice production by surveying the successful water management techniques in the Egyptian Nile Delta. Management scenarios were suggested to save as much irrigation water as possible. The scenarios showed that water, which could be used in the agricultural land expansion, can be saved by 43-52% (4.7-5.7 billion m(3)). (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Production of staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin a in raw milk at high temperatures
Authors: Sabike, II (Sabike, I. I.)[ 1,2 ] ; Fujikawa, H (Fujikawa, H.)[ 1 ] ; Sakha, MZ (Sakha, M. Z.)[ 1 ] ; Edris, AM (Edris, A. M.)[ 2 ]
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Improper processing and storage of raw milk contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus at elevated temperatures can result in the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins, especially type A (SEA), which is most frequently associated with food poisoning outbreaks such as the large one in Osaka, Japan, in 2000. In this study, the characteristics of S. aureus growth and SEA production at various high temperatures in raw milk samples were studied using two raw milk samples naturally containing low and high levels of natural microflora. The optimal temperatures found for SEA production in the two milk types were as high as 40 and 44 degrees C (range, 36 to 48 degrees C), and SEA production was dependent on the initial dose of S. aureus. These high temperatures were close to that of the outbreak in Japan. Thus, it was concluded that temperature was critical for SEA production in raw milk. It was also observed that natural microflora in the milk samples considerably suppressed SEA production but not staphylococcal growth. On the other hand, the amount of toxin in most milk samples decreased after peaking during storage.

Title: Detection of pork adulteration in processed meat by species-specific pcr-qiaxcel procedure based on d-loop and cytb genes.
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Detection of pork meat adulteration in "halal" meat products is a crucial issue in the fields of modern food inspection according to implementation of very strict procedures for halal food labelling. Present study aims at detecting and quantifying pork adulteration in both raw and cooked manufactured sausages. This is by applying an optimized species-specific PCR procedure followed by QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system. Manufacturing experiment was designed by incorporating pork with beef meat at 0.01 to 10% substitution levels beside beef and pork sausages as negative and positive controls, respectively. Subsequently, sausages were divided into raw and cooked sausages then subjected to DNA extraction. Results indicated that PCR amplifications of mitochondrial D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb) genes by porcine-specific primers produced 185 and 117bp pork-specific DNA fragments in sausages, respectively. No DNA fragments were detected when PCR was applied on beef sausage DNA confirming primers specificity. For internal control, a 141-bp DNA fragment of eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified from pork and beef DNA templates. Although PCR followed by either QIAxcel or agarose techniques were efficient for targeted DNA fragments differentiation even as low as 0.01% (pork/meat: w/w). For proficiency, adequacy, and performance, PCR-QIA procedure is highly sensitive, a time-saver, electronically documented, mutagenic-reagent free, of little manual errors, accurate in measuring PCR fragments length, and quantitative data supplier. In conclusion, it can be suggested that optimized PCR-QAI is considered as a rapid and sensitive method for routine pork detection and quantification in raw or processed meat.

Title: Estimation of genetic parameters in three maize crosses for yield and its attributes.
Authors: El-Badawy, M.El.M.
Title: Estimation of genetic parameters in three maize crosses for yield and its attributes.
Authors: El-Badawy, M.El.M.
In: EBSCO: Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost)
Title: Correlation and path coefficient analysis for yield and yield components of soybean genotypes under different planting density.
Authors: El-Badawy, M.El.M., Mehasen, S.A.S.
Title: Influence of nitrogen sources on yield and its components of some maize varieties.
Authors: El-Gizawy, N. Kh. B.; Salem, H. M.
Title: Effect of planting date and fertilizer application on yield of wheat under no till syste.
Authors: El-Gizawy
Title: Effect of growth promoters (probiotics) supplementation on performance, rumen activity and some blood constituents in growing lambs.
Authors: Hillal, H.; El-Sayaad, G.; Abdella, M.
In: CAB Abstracts
Title: Nematode-antagonistic compounds from certain bacterial species.
Authors: Abdelnabby, H. M.; Mohamed, H. A.; Aly, H. E. A.
In: CAB Abstracts
Title: Characteristics of some biochemical materials used for agricultural foil mulch.
Authors: Mostafa, H. M.; Sourell, H.
In: CAB Abstracts
Title: Unusual cutaneous spindle-cell tumor in a buffalo
Authors: El-Maghraby, H.M. (Benha University, El-Kaliobia, Tukh, Egypt.)
In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO): AGRIS
Title: Orbital tumors in two donkeys
Authors: El Maghraby, H.M. (Benha University Moshtohor, Tukh (Egypt)); Fahmy, M.F.
In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO): AGRIS
Title: Effect of feeding regimes and increasing and decreasing lighting programmes on some blood parameters related to metabolic activity and productive efficiency in fayoumi pullets [animals, fish, and poultry production]
Authors: Gado, M.S.; El-Aggoury, S.A.; Hanafi, M.S.; Rezk Allah, S.A. (Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Benha Branch (Egypt))
In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO): AGRIS
Title: Traits of egg quality under the effect of different feeding regimes and lighting programmes [animals, fish, and poultry production]
Authors: El-Aggoury, S.A.; Gado, M.S.; Hanafi, M.S.; Rezk Allah, S.A. (Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Benha (Egypt))
In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO): AGRIS
Title: Evaluation of the sunflower efficiency in broiler rations [animals, fish, and poultry production]
Authors: El-Aggoury, S.A.; Gado, M.S.; Selim, A.D.; Abd-El Malak, N.Y. (Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Benha (Egypt))
In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO): AGRIS
Title: Pullet's breed housing system and dietary calcium source as factors affecting productive performance in chicken under subtropical conditions [animals, fish, and poultry production]
Authors: El-Aggoury, S.A.; Radwan, A.A.; Gado, M.S.; El-Gendi, G.M. (Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Benha Branch, Toukh, Kaliobia (Egypt))
In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO): AGRIS
Title: The effect of lighting programmes and feeding regimes on some parameters of egg production performance in fayoumi pullets [animals, fish, and poultry production]
Authors: El-Aggoury, S.A.; Gado, M.S.; Hanafi, M.S.; Rezk Allah, S.A. (Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Benha Branch (Egypt))
In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO): AGRIS
Title: Some factors affecting serum calcium and phosphorus levels during the time of egg formation in relation to egg shell quality [animals, fish, and poultry production]
Authors: Radwan, A.A.; El-Aggoury, S.A.; Gado, M.S.; El-Gendi, G.M. (Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Benha Branch, Toukh, Kaliobia (Egypt))
In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO): AGRIS