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Prof. Fahim Aziz Eldin Mohamed Shaltout :: Theses :

Title Molecular diagnosis of salmonellae In frozen meat and some meat products
Type PhD
Supervisors Mohamed Mahmoud Mohamed Abdel Hai ; supervised by Fahim Aziz El-Din Shaltout, Essam Ismail Mohamed EL Toukhy.
Year 2019
Abstract A total of one hundred and twenty random samples of frozen meat and meat products include (30 luncheon beef , 30 fresh sausage ,30 frozen minced meat samples and 30 frozen meat samples ) were collected from different supermarkets at Kalyobia Governorate .The samples were transferred directly to the laboratory under strict hygienic conditions and were examined bacteriologically for detection , isolation and identification of Salmonellae.Salmonellae failed to be detected in luncheon beef samples but the percentage of Salmonellae in fresh sausage was 10 % and the isolated serovars were S.typhi ( 3.3 % ) , S. typhimurium (3.3%) and S. enteritidis (3.3%).In frozen packed minced meat , the percentage of Salmonellae was 6.7% and the isolated serovars were S.typhi (3.3%) and S.typhimurium (3.3%) .In frozen meat , the percentage of Salmonellae was 13.3% and the isolated serovars were S.Papuana (6.7%), S.paratyphiA(3.3%) and S.Vircho (3.3%).In this work the specificity of the oligonucleotide primers was carried out by testing of all Salmonella strains with PCR using the primer pairs targeting the invA gene (specific for all members of Salmonella species). All the 6 Salmonella isolates detected by bacteriological examination were tested by PCR using the same primer pair after selective enrichment media on XLD agar and all Salmonella serovars were positive for amplification of 284 bp fragments of invA gene as shown in (photo, 6).
Keywords
University Banha university. / Faculty of veterinary medicine. -Department of food control.
Country Egypt
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Title Prevalence and molecular characterization of S. aureus and E.coli isolated from some meat products with special reference to effect of addition of some essential oils
Type PhD
Supervisors Saber Bayomi Ali El-Nahas ; supervised by Saad Mahmoud Saad, Fahim Aziz-Eldin Shaltout, Nahla Ahmed Shawky Abou-Elroos.
Year 2019
Abstract The present study was planned to assess the incidence of E. coli and its strains, Staphylococci, Staphylococcal species, S.aureus so, A total of 100 random samples of frozen minced beef , beef burger, kofta and sausage (25 of each) were randomly collected from different shops and supermarkets at different production dates in El-Menoufia governorate, Egypt. All collected samples were examined to determine their bacteriological profiles.It is evident from the obtained results that all the examined samples of frozen minced beef, kofta, sausage and beef burger were positive staphylococci, and the Staphylococcal count in the examined samples of of meat products ranged from 3.0×102 to 2.5×104 with a mean value of 4.28×103 ± 0.86×103 for frozen minced beef , 4.0×102 to3.0×104 with a mean value of 8.13×103 ± 2.04×103 for kofta, 6.0×102 to 9.0×104with a mean value of 6.23×103 ± 0.31×103for sausage and from 5.0×102 to 6.0×104 with a mean value of 7.54×103 ± 1.60×103 (cfu/g)for beef burger.According to Egyptian Orgnization for Standardization ”EOS”, the acceptability of the examined samples of meat products based on their Staphylococci counts/g is 60%, 28%, 48% and 32% in frozen minced beef, kofta, sausage and beef burger were accepted .On the other hand, S.aureus was detected in 10 (40 %),17 (68% ), 18 (72%) and 13 (52% ) in examined samples of frozen minced beef, kofta, sausage and beef burger, respectively and the incidence of S. aureus count (cfu/g) in examined samples of meat products ranged from 2.3×102 to 2.0×104 with a mean value of 2.11×103± 1.45×103 for frozen minced beef , from 3.7×102 to 2.4×104 with a mean value of 5.41×103 ± 0.95×103 for kofta , from 4.7×102 to 5.0×104 with a mean value of 1.96×103 ± 0.37×103 for sausage and from 4.1×102 to 5.2×104 with a mean value of 6.16×103 ± 0.82×103 for beef burger .The variation in the results may be due to the differences in manufacture practices, handling from producers to consumers and the effectiveness of hygienic measures applied during production.Serological examination declared that the incidence of staphylococcus species isolated from examined samples of meat products is 28 %, 8 %, 4 %,4 %,4 % and 8 % for S. aureus ,S. epidermidis ,S.saprophyticus, S. intermedius ,S. capitis and Micrococci spp., isolated from from frozen minced beef 28 %, 12%, 8 %,4 % ,8 %and 16% forS.aureus, S.epidermidis, S.saprophyticus,S.intermedius ,S.capitis and Micrococci spp., isolated from kofta , 36% , 12% ,4 %8 %and16%forS.aureus , S.epidermidis , S.saprophyticus, S.intermediusand Micrococci spp., respectively isolated from sausage and 32%, 28%, 12%, 4%, 8 % and 4 % for S.aureus, S.epidermidi, S.saprophyticus, S.intermedius ,S.capitis and Micrococci spp., respectively isolated from beef burger samples and the isolation percent was calculated according to the number of examined samples.Using conventional methods and the E.coli strains isolated from frozen minced beef were O26:H11 (one EHEC strain) 4% and O119:H4(one EPEC strain) 4% . Also, E. coli could be isolated from Kofta were O86(two EPEC strain) 8% , O127:H6 (one ETEC strain) 4 % , respectively, from sausage were O26:H11(one EHEC strain)4% , O55:H7(one EPEC strain) 4 %,O86(two EPEC strain) 8 % ,O111:H4(two EHEC strain) 8 % and O124(two EIEC strain) 8 % respectively and from beef burger were O26:H11(two EHEC strain) 8% ,O55:H7(one EPEC strain) 4 %,O86(one EPEC strain) 4 % ,O111:H4(one EHEC strain) 4 %and O124 (one EIEC strain) 4 % respectively.from the previous results, the incidence of E. coli and S. aureus in this study might be attributed to lack of hygienic measures, poor sanitation, excessive handling, ignorance of workers and vendors for hygienic measures and also using contaminated equipement and machiens during preparation of meat products, in addition to bad storage practices.Moreover, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was applied on all isolated S. aureus and E.coli strains and the results revealed that S. aureus strains were mostly susceptible to Oxacillin, Cephalotin and Enrofloxacin; and E.coli strains were susceptible to Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Kanamycin. The results also revealed that all the examined strains of E.coli were resistant to Penicillin (100%) and Erythromycin (94.7%), while all S. aureus isolates were resistant to Kanamycin (100%) and Penicillin (96.8%).The results cleared that PCR is an ideal method for identification of S. aureus and E. coli, as it was effective, less labor, more sensitive, reduces effort and time .It was found that the sensory properties of the samples were enhanced by using essential oils as thyme, cinnamon and garlic. Moreover, the obtained results revealed that each of thyme, cinnamon and garlic has antimicrobial effect against S. aureus and E. coli as:-The initial counts of S. aureus in minced beef samples after inoculation was 10.86 log10cfu/g , By using the concentration of 1% of thyme oil, S. aureus counts were 7.01, 6.02, 5.52, 5.01and 3.52 log10 cfu/g after 3hrs, 1day, 2days, 3days and 4days of inoculation respectively. By using cinnamon oil at a concentration of 1%, S. aureus counts were 7.01, 6.02, 5.52, 5.01 and 3.52 log10cfu/g after 3hrs, 1day, 2days, 3days and 4days of inoculation respectively.By using the concentration of 1% garlic, S. aureus counts were 9.20, 8.54, 7.75, 6.60 and 6.06 log10cfu/g after 3hrs, 1day, 2days, 3days and 4days of inoculation respectively.The initial counts of E. coli in minced beef samples after inoculation was 7.90 log10cfu/g. By using the concentration of 1% thyme E. coli counts were 4.13,2.42, 2.90, 3.27&2.95 log10cfu/g after 3hrs, 1day, 2days, 3days and 4days of inoculation respectively.In case of using cinnamon oil at a concentration of 1 %, E. coli counts were 4.78 ,4.05,0.78 , 2.75&2.42 log10 cfu/g after 3hrs, 1day, 2days, 3 days and 4days of inoculation respectively.At the concentration of 1% garlic oil, E. coli counts were 4.75, 6.27,4.00, 3.56& 3.00 log10cfu/g after 3hrs, 1day, 2days, 3days and 4days of inoculation respectively.Finally, the risk of consumption of contaminated meat products, the public health hazards of the isolated microorganisms and also the possible sources of contamination and antimicrobial resistance of the isolated m.os against certain antibiotics were discussed. In addition to some recommendations which were suggested to avoid the contaminations of such foods and to improve their quality and safety for sake of consumers as:• Improving the hygienic quality of meat products•Regarding slaughter houses hygienic measures•Regarding meat processing plants hygienic measures• Regarding to personal hygiene• Regarding the storage of the meat product•Meat products should be fully cooked before consumption• application of HACCP system should be done in meat processing plants in all steps and marketing to ensure maximum safety to the consumers.
Keywords
University Banha university. / Faculty of veterinary medicine. -Department of food hygiene and control.
Country Banha university. / Faculty of veterinary medicine. -Department of food hygiene and control.
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Title Mycological aspect of chicken and fresh meat and impact of some natural preservative on fungal profile /
Type PhD
Supervisors Mohamed Samy Mohamed Mohamed ; Supervised by Fahim Aziz El Deen Shaltout, Eman Mahmoud EL-Diasty.
Year 2019
Abstract The present investigation was designed to study the total mould and yeasts counts in a total of 140 samples represented by meat slice, minced meat, chicken thigh, and chicken fillet slice (35 of each) which were randomly collected from different localities of different sanitation levels at Benha city under different trade name. Isolation and identification of existed mould and yeast genera as well as study effects of natural additives in different concentration. These additives were represented by chitosan ( 0.5% , 1% and 1.5%) , thyme oil ( 0.5% , 1% and 1.5%) , lactic acid ( 0.5% , 1% and 1.5%) and Acetic acid ( 0.5% , 1% and 1.5%) , studying antifungal activity , sensory evaluation , pH , TBA , TVN and color .Detection of yeast genera by using rapid yeast kits ( Remel , USA ).Chicken fillet meat :The result revealed that the mould and yeast could be detected in 29(82%) and 30(85.7%) , respectively with mean values of 1.1x103±9.1x102 and 6.7x102±2.3x102,respectively .The mould genera isolated from chicken fillet were penicillum (P.italicum P.rugulosum ,P.implication, P.citreonigrum and P.citinum ) , Aspergillus ( which further identified to A.flavus , A.niger , A.terrus and A.ochraceus ) ),Cladosporium, Eupenicillum, Monascus and Chysonilia .While the yeast genera isolated were candida , Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus and Torulopsis . The results obtained from using natural preservatives rebresented by chitosan ( 0.5% , 1% and 1.5%) , thyme oil ( 0.5% , 1% and 1.5%) , lactic acid ( 0.5% , 1% and 1.5%) and Acetic acid ( 0.5% , 1% and 1.5%) give good result in pH , TVN , TBA and sensory evaluation and measured from day zero to day 18 .
Keywords
University Thesis (Ph.D.)- Banha university. faculty of veterinary medicine. department of food hygiene and control.
Country Thesis (Ph.D.)- Banha university. faculty of veterinary medicine. department of food hygiene and control.
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Title Some studies on effect of turmeric and lemon extracts on fungal contamination of chicken meat /
Type PhD
Supervisors Wael Ibrahim Moussa Hassan ; supervised by Fahim Aziz El Deen Shaltout, Ramadan Mostafa Tag El-Deen Salem.
Year 2019
Abstract PART I :-The present investigation was designed to study the total mould counts and detection of aflatoxin residues in chicken meat in a total of 60 samples represented by chicken thigh, chicken breast, chicken fillet slice and chicken liver (15 of each) which were randomly collected from different chicken slaughter shops at Gharbia Governorate.Isolation and identification of existed mould genera and aflatoxin residues in chicken meat as well as study effects of turmeric extract, lemon fruits extract; lemon peel extract, lemon juice on fungal contamination of chicken fillet meat and sensory evaluation.Chicken thigh meat The result revealed that the mould detected in examined Chicken thigh samples were 100% with mean values of 1.7x 102 ± 2.5 x10. The mould genera isolated from chicken thigh were Aspergillus (which further identified to A.niger, A.flavus and A. terreus), penicillum (P. aurantiogriseum, P. citrinum and P. glabrum), Acremonium spp., Cladosporium spp., Curvularia spp., Eupencillium spp., Fusarium spp. and Mucor spp. The aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 15 samples of the thigh, the minimum detected the level of aflatoxin B1 in the thigh was 8 ppb and the maximum was 20 ppb with a mean value of 11.3 ± 1.0 µg/kg.Chicken breast meat The results declared that the mould detected in examined Chicken breast samples were 100% with mean values of 1.4 x103 ± 1.7 x102. The mould genera isolated from chicken Aspergillus spp. (which further identified to A. niger and A. flavus) followed by Cladosporium spp., Penicillium (P. albocoremium, P. aurantiogriseum and P. hordei ) Eupencillium spp. , Geotrichum candidum, Fusarium spp. and Eurotium spp., Acremonium spp., Chaetomium spp. Colletotrichum spp. and Curvularia spp. The aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 15 samples of breast, the minimum detected the level of aflatoxin B1 was 8.9 ppb and the maximum was 23 ppb with a mean value of 15.9 ± 1.2 ppb.Chicken fillet meat In chicken fillet, the percentage of contamination with mould was 15(100%). With a mean value of 6.2x102±1.4x102. The mould genera isolated from chicken thigh were Aspergillus (which further identified into A.niger, A.flavus, A. candidus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus and A. wentii), Penicillium (which further identified into P. aurantiogriseum, P. brevicompactum and P. griseofulvum), Fusarium spp., Cladosporium spp., Talaromyces spp. and Alternaria spp. Concerning to the Aflatoxin B1 which found in fillet samples the minimum detected the level of was 10 ppb and the maximum was 33 ppb with a mean value of 17.6 ± 2.4 ppb.Chicken liver
Keywords
University Thesis (M.S.)- Banha university. faculty of veterinary medicine. department of food hygiene and control.
Country Egypt
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Title Impact of some essential oils on the quality aspect and shelf life of meat /
Type PhD
Supervisors Hanan Ali Zean El-Abdeen Nasr Koura ; supervised by Fahim Aziz El-din Mouhamed Shaltout,
Year 2018
Abstract This study showed the effects of essential oils on improving minced meat quality and extending the shelf life of minced meat, the object of this study was examined effects of thyme (T.vulgaris) at concentrations (1% , 1.5% , 2%) and cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) at concentrations (0.5% , 1% , 1.5% ) on chemical measurment (pH , TBA and TVBN ) , microbial growth (aerobic plate count ,enterobacteriaceae count and coliforms count) and sensory properties (taste , odor , tenderness and over all acceptability) of minced meat when storage at 2°C during 12 days of storage period.1-Effect of defferent concentrations of thyme ( thymus vulgaris) and cinnamon(cinnamomum zeylanicum) oils on pH characters of minced beef during cold storage at 2°C,the obtained results showed that pH values control samples were 5.65, 5.95, 6.10 , 6.33 & 6.65, at 0, 3rd , 6th , 9th & 12th day of storage period, respectively. Samples treated by thyme oil the pH values at concentration 1% (T1) were 5.65, 5.82, 5.94, 6.01 &6.35; concentration 1.5% (T2) pH values were 5.65, 5.76, 5.81, 5.88 &6.22 and concentration 2% (T3) pH values were 5.65, 5.66, 5.71, 5.78& 6.03, at 0, 3rd day,6th day,9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. The obtained results showed that samples containing thyme essential oil were decreasing in pH values than control samples during different periods of storage. Also, by increasing concentration of thyme to 2% pH values showed the highest effect in decreasing pH values than lower concentration (1%), it may be due antimicrobial effect of thyme oil . By using cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) oil the pH values at concentration 0.5% (T4) were 5.65, 5.80, 5.86, 5.94 & 6.42; at concentration 1% (T5) values were 5.65, 5.76, 5.79, 5.85 & 6.26 and at concentration 1.5% (T6) pH values were 5.65, 5.72, 5.74 ,5.80 & 6.09, at 0, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. The obtained results recorded that cinnamon essential oil with different concentrations lowered the pH values than control samples during storage period, respectively. With increasing concentration of cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) (1.5%) was more lowering in pH values than lower cinnamon concentration (0.5%). from obtained results treatment minced meat with thyme or cinnamon revealed decreasing in pH values than un treated samples (control samples).2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values of minced meat with thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon formulated (C. zeylanicum) essential oils during cold storage at 2°C, the obtained results showed that at control samples (TBA) values were 0.40 , 0.68 , 0.92 , 1.19 & 1.45 at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. By using thyme oil at concentration 1% (T1) the TBA reactive substance values were 0.40, 0.58, 0.85, 0.98 & 1.17; using concentration 1.5% (T2) TBA values were 0.40, 0.53, 0.78, 0.91 & 0.99 and using concentration 2% (T3) TBA values were 0.39, 0.49, 0.60, 0.72 & 0.83, at 0 day, 3th day, 6th day,9th day & 12th day, respectively. The present study revealed that treated samples with thyme oil at different concentrations showed lowering in TBARs values than control samples and increasing of thyme essential oil concentration caused decreasing the TBARs values than lower thyme concentration used. By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5% (T4) TBARs values were 0.40, 0.62, 0.76, 0.82 & 0.96; using concentration 1% (T5) TBARs values were 0.40, 0.53, 0.71, 0.82 & 0.92 and using concentration 1.5% (T6) TBARs values were 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.77 & 0.88. at 0 day,3rd day,6th day,9th day and 12th day of storage period, respectively. All treated samples by cinnamon oil showed lowering in TBARs values than control sample, also increasing concentration of cinnamon essential oil (1.5%) showed decreasing in the TBARs values than lower concentration (0.5%).3-Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen TVBN values of minced meat formulated with Thyme (T. vulgaris) and cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) essential oil during cold storage at 2°C, the obtained results showed that at control sample TVBN values were 12.46, 16.1, 17.45, 20.51 & 24.60, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. At samples treated with thyme oil at concentration 1% (T1) TVBN values were 12.36, 13.63, 15.49, 19.56 & 21.66.; at concentration 1.5% (T2) TVBN values were 12.35, 13.52, 14.41, 18.59&20.70 and at concentration 2%(T3) TVBN values were 12.25, 12.43, 12.56, 13.63 & 15.76, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. from the obtained result which appeared that the treatment samples with thyme oil at different concentrations caused decreasing in (TVBN) values than results showed by control samples during storage period especially at 9th and 12th day of storage, also by increasing concentration of thyme (2%) was more effective in decreasing TVBN values than lower concentration of thyme (1%). By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5% (T4) TVBN values were 12.38, 14.01, 16.24, 20.22 &21.79.; at concentration 1% (T5) TVBN values were 12.35, 13.99, 15.26, 18.36 &20.14 and at concentration 1.5%(T6) TVBN values were 12.28, 12.46, 13.67, 14.72 &17.79, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. from the obtained result which appeared that the treatment samples with cinnamon oil at different concentrations caused decreasing in TVBN values than control samples especially at 9th and 12th day of storage, also by increase concentration of cinnamon (1.5%) was more effective in decreasing TVBN values than lower concentration of cinnamon (0.5%) which was used.4-Effect of different concentrations of thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) essentials on aerobic plate count APC on minced meat during cold storage at 2°C ,the obtained results showed that the APC values of control minced meat samples were 5.19x103, 6.11x104, 4.15x106, 2.25x107 &2.33x108, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively as APCwas at permicible limit at 6th day. By using thyme oil at concentration 1% (T1) APC values were 5.19x103, 5.63x104, 6.25x106, 1.15x107 & 5.16x108.; at concentration 1.5% (T2) APC values were 5.18x103, 4.53x104, 5.11x105, 4.22x106 & 3.13x107.and at concentration 2% (T3) APC were 5.17x103, 3.73x103, 3.15x105, 5.89x105&2.15x106, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of thyme showed decreasing count of aerobic plate microorganism when compaired to control samples, also high concentration of thyme (2%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration(1%) . By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5%(T4) APC values were 5.19x103, 8.53x104, 6.12x106, 5.15x107 & 5.14x108.; at concentration 1%(T5) APC values were 5.19x103, 7.93x104, 6.10x105, 5.15x106 &4.32x107 and at concentration 1.5%(T6) APC values were 5.18x103, 5.12x104, 4.14x105,6.15x105&2.32x106, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated with different concentrations of cinnamon caused decreasing count of aerobic plate microorganism when compaired to control samples, also high concentration of cinnamon (1.5%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration of cinnamon oil (0.5%).5-Effect of different concentrations of thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon(C.zeylanicum) essential on enterobacteriaceae count EBC on minced meat during cold storage at 2°C , from obtained results showed that at control samples the enterobactereacea count EBC was 9.32x103,7.24x104, 8.15x105, 4.25x106 &3.25x108, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively as results were at permicible limit at 9th day. By using thyme oil at concentration 1% (T1) EBC was 9.32x103, 7.04x104, 7.12x105, 6.45x105 &6.25x106.; at concentration 1.5% (T2) EBC was 9.32x103, 7.03x104, 4.11x105, 9.25x104 &4.25x105 and at concentration 2% (T3) EBC was 9.32x103, 6.81x104, 8.65x104, 8.25x105&1.55x105, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of thyme oil showed decreasing count of enterobactereacea when compaired to control samples, also high concentration of thyme (2%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration(1%). By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5% (T4) (EBC) was 9.32x103, 7.24x104, 7.24x105, 5.27x105 &8.95x106 .; at concentration 1% (T5) EBC was 9.32X103, 7.01X104, 7.15X105, 2.25X105 &3.25X106 .; at concentration 1.5%(T6) EBC was 9.32x103, 6.92x104, 8.95x104, 9.25x104 &4.35x105. At 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of cinnamon oil caused decreasing count of enterobacteriaceae when compared to control samples, also high concentration of cinnamon was more decreasing of EBC than lower concentration of cinnamon (0.5%).6-Effect of different concentrations of thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon(C.zeylanicum) essential on coliforms count of minced meat during cold storage at 2°C , the obtained results showed that at control samples coliform count was 6.45x101, 7.23x102, 8.45x102, 5.53x103 & 6.45x104, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively as results were at permicible limit at 6th day and exceed than that at 9th and 12th day of storage. By using thyme oil at concentration1%(T1) coli form count was 6.45x101, 7.21x102, 8.40x102, 2.13x103 &6.15x104.; at concentration 1.5% (T2) coliform count was 6.45x101, 5.13x102, 6.35x102, 8.03x102 &5.45x103 and coliform count at concentration 2%(T3) was 6.25x101, 3.23x102, 5.15x102, 6.53x102 &9.45x102, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of thyme oil showed decreasing count of coliform when compaired to control samples, also high concentration of thyme oil (2%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration (1%) . By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5% (T4) coliform count was 6.45x101, 7.13x102, 8.25x102, 2.23x103 &6.25x104.; at concentration 1% (T5) coliform count was 6.45x101, 5.45x102, 6.55x102, 7.44x102 &6.05x103 and at concentration 1.5% (T6) coliform count was 6.45x101, 4.12x102, 5.45x102, 6.63x102 &9.55x102 , at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of cinnamon oil caused decreasing count of coliform when compaired to control sample, also high concentration of cinnamon (1.5%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration(0.5%).7-Effect of different concentrations of thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) essential oils on sensory properties in minced meat during cold storage at 2°C,results obtained that sensory properties of different treated minced beef samples during cold storage (2ºC) were enhanced by using thyme and cinnamon oils compared to the untreated (control) samples at 0 day,3rd day,6th day,9th day and 12th day of the storage period, respectively as control samples appeared spoilage at 9th day of storage. Generally, samples containing 2% thyme oil and 1.5% cinnamon oil, demonstrated the highest enhancement of sensory attributes,while the samples treated with 1% of thyme and 0.5%cinnamon oils demonstrated lower enhancement.
Keywords
University Thesis (M.S.) - Banha university. faculty of veterinary medicine. department of food control.
Country Egypt
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Title Studies on antibiotic residues in poultry carcasses slaughtered at shops and slaughter houses
Type PhD
Supervisors Naglaa Fathy Sayed Mohammad ; supervised by Fahim Aziz-Eldin Mohammed Shaltout, Mohamed Ahmed Hassan El Shatter.
Year 2019
Abstract A total of 60 fresh chicken breast and thigh (30 of each) were collected from Giza and Cairo governorates poultry shops. The average weight of each sample 250 g.; each sample was put in sterile polyethylene bag then sealed and labeled. The samples were transferred to the laboratory in an ice box without delay. The samples were frozen at – 20oC until examined within few days. The detection of antibiotics residues was carried out using agar diffusion method.The obtained results revealed that the types and concentrations of different antibiotics (Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides, Macrolidees, Ciprofloxacin and Oxytetracycline) and showed that positive samples (Breast and Thigh) were 1,3 & 4,4 & zero, 3& 2,2 &1,1 for the previously mentioned antibiotics, respectively. The most prevalence was recorded for Aminoglycosides, while the lowest one was for Macrolides.It is obvious that there are 3 samples which contain more than one antibiotic. According to the MRLs of Aminoglycosides (50 ug/kg) , and Ciprofloxacin (100 ug/kg) (EEC, 1990) there were unaccepted samples (Breast: 1, Thigh: 2& Breast: 1, Thigh: 1), respectively. The prevalence of all examined antibiotics in chicken samples and revealed that there was 30 % (18 samples) as positive for presence of antibiotics.By using four plates method, the incidence of positive breast and thigh of chicken samples for presence of antibiotic residues was 25% (15 samples).The total positive chicken breast samples were 5 with a percentage of )16.66(%. The highest percent was for Aminoglycosides (13.33%), while the lowest one was for Sulphonamides (3.33%), and Macrolides was not detected and the total positive chicken thigh samples were 10 with a percentage of )33.33(%. The highest percent was for Aminoglycosides (13.33%), while the lowest one was for Sulphonamides and Macrolides (10 % each).The prevalence of Ciprofloxacin was higher as) 6.67 % ( than that of Oxytetracycline as )3.33(% in chicken breast samples, while the prevalence of Ciprofloxacin was higher as) 6.67 %( than that of Oxytetracycline as )3.33%( in chicken thigh samples.The results revealed that 55 (91.67%) samples were accepted, while 5(8.33%) samples were rejected depending on MRL: 100 ug/kg for muscle for Ciprofloxacin and 50 ug/kg for Aminoglycosides (EEC No 2377/90).The effect of boiling on ciprofloxacin residues in Chicken Muscles was studied, as it was found before boiling 388ug/kg, and after boiling 301ug/kg, with reduction percentage as) 22.42%(. Oxytetracycline was dramatically reduced by boiling from 244ug/kg to 53.84ug/kg with) 77.93 %( of reduction.The effect of microwave treatment on Ciprofloxacin and Oxytetracycline residues was recorded as the reduction % was )35.57%( and )81.48%( for both antibiotics, respectively.The effect of roasting on both Ciprofloxacin and Oxytetracycline was observed, and the results recorded reduction percentage as) 17.01%( and )37.41%(, respectively.The effect of freezing for 6 months on Ciprofloxacin and Oxytetracycline was described as the reduction was )62.62%( for Ciprofloxacin and for Oxytetracycline was )2.05%(, while after freezing for 12 months the former one completely disappeared while the latter was reduced by )32.38%(.
Keywords
University Thesis (M.S.)- Banha university. faculty of veterinary medicine. department of food hygiene and control.
Country Egypt
Full Paper -

Title Impact of some essential oils on the quality aspect and shelf life of meat
Type MSc
Supervisors Hanan Ali Zean El-Abdeen Nasr Koura ; supervised by Fahim Aziz El-din Mouhamed Shaltout,
Year 2018
Abstract This study showed the effects of essential oils on improving minced meat quality and extending the shelf life of minced meat, the object of this study was examined effects of thyme (T.vulgaris) at concentrations (1% , 1.5% , 2%) and cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) at concentrations (0.5% , 1% , 1.5% ) on chemical measurment (pH , TBA and TVBN ) , microbial growth (aerobic plate count ,enterobacteriaceae count and coliforms count) and sensory properties (taste , odor , tenderness and over all acceptability) of minced meat when storage at 2°C during 12 days of storage period.1-Effect of defferent concentrations of thyme ( thymus vulgaris) and cinnamon(cinnamomum zeylanicum) oils on pH characters of minced beef during cold storage at 2°C,the obtained results showed that pH values control samples were 5.65, 5.95, 6.10 , 6.33 & 6.65, at 0, 3rd , 6th , 9th & 12th day of storage period, respectively. Samples treated by thyme oil the pH values at concentration 1% (T1) were 5.65, 5.82, 5.94, 6.01 &6.35; concentration 1.5% (T2) pH values were 5.65, 5.76, 5.81, 5.88 &6.22 and concentration 2% (T3) pH values were 5.65, 5.66, 5.71, 5.78& 6.03, at 0, 3rd day,6th day,9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. The obtained results showed that samples containing thyme essential oil were decreasing in pH values than control samples during different periods of storage. Also, by increasing concentration of thyme to 2% pH values showed the highest effect in decreasing pH values than lower concentration (1%), it may be due antimicrobial effect of thyme oil . By using cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) oil the pH values at concentration 0.5% (T4) were 5.65, 5.80, 5.86, 5.94 & 6.42; at concentration 1% (T5) values were 5.65, 5.76, 5.79, 5.85 & 6.26 and at concentration 1.5% (T6) pH values were 5.65, 5.72, 5.74 ,5.80 & 6.09, at 0, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. The obtained results recorded that cinnamon essential oil with different concentrations lowered the pH values than control samples during storage period, respectively. With increasing concentration of cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) (1.5%) was more lowering in pH values than lower cinnamon concentration (0.5%). from obtained results treatment minced meat with thyme or cinnamon revealed decreasing in pH values than un treated samples (control samples).2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values of minced meat with thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon formulated (C. zeylanicum) essential oils during cold storage at 2°C, the obtained results showed that at control samples (TBA) values were 0.40 , 0.68 , 0.92 , 1.19 & 1.45 at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. By using thyme oil at concentration 1% (T1) the TBA reactive substance values were 0.40, 0.58, 0.85, 0.98 & 1.17; using concentration 1.5% (T2) TBA values were 0.40, 0.53, 0.78, 0.91 & 0.99 and using concentration 2% (T3) TBA values were 0.39, 0.49, 0.60, 0.72 & 0.83, at 0 day, 3th day, 6th day,9th day & 12th day, respectively. The present study revealed that treated samples with thyme oil at different concentrations showed lowering in TBARs values than control samples and increasing of thyme essential oil concentration caused decreasing the TBARs values than lower thyme concentration used. By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5% (T4) TBARs values were 0.40, 0.62, 0.76, 0.82 & 0.96; using concentration 1% (T5) TBARs values were 0.40, 0.53, 0.71, 0.82 & 0.92 and using concentration 1.5% (T6) TBARs values were 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.77 & 0.88. at 0 day,3rd day,6th day,9th day and 12th day of storage period, respectively. All treated samples by cinnamon oil showed lowering in TBARs values than control sample, also increasing concentration of cinnamon essential oil (1.5%) showed decreasing in the TBARs values than lower concentration (0.5%).3-Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen TVBN values of minced meat formulated with Thyme (T. vulgaris) and cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) essential oil during cold storage at 2°C, the obtained results showed that at control sample TVBN values were 12.46, 16.1, 17.45, 20.51 & 24.60, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. At samples treated with thyme oil at concentration 1% (T1) TVBN values were 12.36, 13.63, 15.49, 19.56 & 21.66.; at concentration 1.5% (T2) TVBN values were 12.35, 13.52, 14.41, 18.59&20.70 and at concentration 2%(T3) TVBN values were 12.25, 12.43, 12.56, 13.63 & 15.76, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. from the obtained result which appeared that the treatment samples with thyme oil at different concentrations caused decreasing in (TVBN) values than results showed by control samples during storage period especially at 9th and 12th day of storage, also by increasing concentration of thyme (2%) was more effective in decreasing TVBN values than lower concentration of thyme (1%). By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5% (T4) TVBN values were 12.38, 14.01, 16.24, 20.22 &21.79.; at concentration 1% (T5) TVBN values were 12.35, 13.99, 15.26, 18.36 &20.14 and at concentration 1.5%(T6) TVBN values were 12.28, 12.46, 13.67, 14.72 &17.79, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. from the obtained result which appeared that the treatment samples with cinnamon oil at different concentrations caused decreasing in TVBN values than control samples especially at 9th and 12th day of storage, also by increase concentration of cinnamon (1.5%) was more effective in decreasing TVBN values than lower concentration of cinnamon (0.5%) which was used.4-Effect of different concentrations of thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) essentials on aerobic plate count APC on minced meat during cold storage at 2°C ,the obtained results showed that the APC values of control minced meat samples were 5.19x103, 6.11x104, 4.15x106, 2.25x107 &2.33x108, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively as APCwas at permicible limit at 6th day. By using thyme oil at concentration 1% (T1) APC values were 5.19x103, 5.63x104, 6.25x106, 1.15x107 & 5.16x108.; at concentration 1.5% (T2) APC values were 5.18x103, 4.53x104, 5.11x105, 4.22x106 & 3.13x107.and at concentration 2% (T3) APC were 5.17x103, 3.73x103, 3.15x105, 5.89x105&2.15x106, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9th day&12th day of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of thyme showed decreasing count of aerobic plate microorganism when compaired to control samples, also high concentration of thyme (2%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration(1%) . By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5%(T4) APC values were 5.19x103, 8.53x104, 6.12x106, 5.15x107 & 5.14x108.; at concentration 1%(T5) APC values were 5.19x103, 7.93x104, 6.10x105, 5.15x106 &4.32x107 and at concentration 1.5%(T6) APC values were 5.18x103, 5.12x104, 4.14x105,6.15x105&2.32x106, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated with different concentrations of cinnamon caused decreasing count of aerobic plate microorganism when compaired to control samples, also high concentration of cinnamon (1.5%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration of cinnamon oil (0.5%).5-Effect of different concentrations of thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon(C.zeylanicum) essential on enterobacteriaceae count EBC on minced meat during cold storage at 2°C , from obtained results showed that at control samples the enterobactereacea count EBC was 9.32x103,7.24x104, 8.15x105, 4.25x106 &3.25x108, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively as results were at permicible limit at 9th day. By using thyme oil at concentration 1% (T1) EBC was 9.32x103, 7.04x104, 7.12x105, 6.45x105 &6.25x106.; at concentration 1.5% (T2) EBC was 9.32x103, 7.03x104, 4.11x105, 9.25x104 &4.25x105 and at concentration 2% (T3) EBC was 9.32x103, 6.81x104, 8.65x104, 8.25x105&1.55x105, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of thyme oil showed decreasing count of enterobactereacea when compaired to control samples, also high concentration of thyme (2%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration(1%). By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5% (T4) (EBC) was 9.32x103, 7.24x104, 7.24x105, 5.27x105 &8.95x106 .; at concentration 1% (T5) EBC was 9.32X103, 7.01X104, 7.15X105, 2.25X105 &3.25X106 .; at concentration 1.5%(T6) EBC was 9.32x103, 6.92x104, 8.95x104, 9.25x104 &4.35x105. At 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of cinnamon oil caused decreasing count of enterobacteriaceae when compared to control samples, also high concentration of cinnamon was more decreasing of EBC than lower concentration of cinnamon (0.5%).6-Effect of different concentrations of thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon(C.zeylanicum) essential on coliforms count of minced meat during cold storage at 2°C , the obtained results showed that at control samples coliform count was 6.45x101, 7.23x102, 8.45x102, 5.53x103 & 6.45x104, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively as results were at permicible limit at 6th day and exceed than that at 9th and 12th day of storage. By using thyme oil at concentration1%(T1) coli form count was 6.45x101, 7.21x102, 8.40x102, 2.13x103 &6.15x104.; at concentration 1.5% (T2) coliform count was 6.45x101, 5.13x102, 6.35x102, 8.03x102 &5.45x103 and coliform count at concentration 2%(T3) was 6.25x101, 3.23x102, 5.15x102, 6.53x102 &9.45x102, at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of thyme oil showed decreasing count of coliform when compaired to control samples, also high concentration of thyme oil (2%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration (1%) . By using cinnamon oil at concentration 0.5% (T4) coliform count was 6.45x101, 7.13x102, 8.25x102, 2.23x103 &6.25x104.; at concentration 1% (T5) coliform count was 6.45x101, 5.45x102, 6.55x102, 7.44x102 &6.05x103 and at concentration 1.5% (T6) coliform count was 6.45x101, 4.12x102, 5.45x102, 6.63x102 &9.55x102 , at 0 day, 3rd day, 6th day, 9thday&12thday of storage period, respectively. from the obtained results, samples treated by different concentrations of cinnamon oil caused decreasing count of coliform when compaired to control sample, also high concentration of cinnamon (1.5%) was more effective in decreasing this count than lower concentration(0.5%).7-Effect of different concentrations of thyme (T.vulgaris) and cinnamon (C.zeylanicum) essential oils on sensory properties in minced meat during cold storage at 2°C,results obtained that sensory properties of different treated minced beef samples during cold storage (2ºC) were enhanced by using thyme and cinnamon oils compared to the untreated (control) samples at 0 day,3rd day,6th day,9th day and 12th day of the storage period, respectively as control samples appeared spoilage at 9th day of storage. Generally, samples containing 2% thyme oil and 1.5% cinnamon oil, demonstrated the highest enhancement of sensory attributes,while the samples treated with 1% of thyme and 0.5%cinnamon oils demonstrated lower enhancement.
Keywords
University Thesis (M.S.) - Banha university. faculty of veterinary medicine. department of food control.
Country Egypt
Full Paper -

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